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[v] Morsella E, Bargh JA, Gollwitzer PM (eds) (2008) Oxford handbook of human action. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[vi] For purposes of this book, I use the definition of habit formation as the process of learning new behaviors through repetition until they become automatic. I am grateful to Dr. Stephen Wendel for pointing out the spectrum of habits. For a framework describing other automatic behaviors see: Bargh, John A. “The Four Horsemen of Automaticity: Awareness, Intention, Efficiency, and Control in Social Cognition.” In Handbook of Social Cognition, Vol. 1: Basic Processes; Vol. 2: Applications (2nd Ed.), edited by R. S. Wyer and T. K. Srull, 1–40. Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, 1994.
[vii] Verplanken, Bas, and Wendy Wood. “Interventions to Break and Create Consumer Habits.” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 25, no. 1 (March 2006): 90–103. doi:10.1509/jppm.25.1.90.
[viii] Wood W, Neal DT (2007) A new look at habits and the habit-goal interface. Psychol Rev 114(4):843–863[viii].
[ix] “Pinterest.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 21, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pinterest&oldid=587088493.
[x] “What Causes Behavior Change?.” BJ Fogg’s Behavior Model. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.behaviormodel.org/.
[xi] Robert Sapolsky: Are Humans Just Another Primate? Accessed December 19, 2013. http://fora.tv/2011/02/15/Robert_Sapolsky_Are_Humans_Just_Another_Primate.
[xii] Brevers, Damien, and Xavier Noël. “Pathological Gambling and the Loss of Willpower: A Neurocognitive Perspective.” Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 3, no. 0 (September 26, 2013). doi:10.3402/snp.v3i0.21592.
[xiii] “The Acceleration of Addictiveness,” Paul Graham. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.paulgraham.com/addiction.html.
[xiv] “Night of the Living Dead.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Night_of_the_Living_Dead&oldid=586570022.
[xv] Thaler, Richard H., Cass R. Sunstein, and John P. Balz. Choice Architecture. SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, April 2, 2010. http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1583509.
[xvi] For a memorable acronym of the Hook Model, think “ATARI”, as in the 1980s video gaming console. “A hook has four parts: Trigger, Action, Reward, and Investment.
Chapter 1: The Habit Zone
[xvii] Wood, Wendy, Jeffrey M Quinn, and Deborah A Kashy. “Habits in Everyday Life: Thought, Emotion, and Action.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83, no. 6 (December 2002): 1281–1297.
[xviii] Yin, Henry H., and Barbara J. Knowlton. “The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Habit Formation.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7, no. 6 (June 2006): 464–476. doi:10.1038/nrn1919.
[xix] Dickinson, A. & Balleine, B. (2002) The role of learning in the operation of motivational systems. In Gallistel, C.R. (ed.), Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Motivation, and Emotion. Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 497–534.
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[xxiv] Freedman, David H. “Say Hello to Your New Brain.” Inc.com. Accessed November 14, 2013. http://www.inc.com/magazine/201112/evernote-2011-company-of-the-year.html.
[xxv] Skok, David. “Lessons Learned – Viral Marketing.” For Entrepreneurs. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.forentrepreneurs.com/lessons-learnt-viral-marketing/.
[xxvi] Gourville, John T. “Eager Sellers and Stony Buyers: Understanding the Psychology of New-Product Adoption.” Accessed November 12, 2013. http://hbr.org/product/eager-sellers-and-stony-buyers-understanding-the-p/an/R0606F-PDF-ENG.
[xxvii] Adams, Cecil. “Was the QWERTY Keyboard Purposely Designed to Slow Typists?,” October 30, 1981. http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/221/was-the-qwerty-keyboard-purposely-designed-to-slow-typists
[xxviii] Bouton, Mark E. “Context and Behavioral Processes in Extinction.” Learning & Memory 11, no. 5 (September 1, 2004): 485–494. doi:10.1101/lm.78804.
[xxix] Kirshenbaum, Ari P., Darlene M. Olsen, and Warren K. Bickel. “A Quantitative Review of the Ubiquitous Relapse Curve.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 36, no. 1 (January 2009): 8–17. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2008.04.001.
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[xxxi] Duhigg, Charles. The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. New York: Random House, 2012. p 20.
[xxxii] Judah, G., B. Gardner, and R. Aunger. “Forming a Flossing Habit: An Exploratory Study of the Psychological Determinants of Habit Formation.” British Journal of Health Psychology 18 (2013): 338–353.
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[xxxiv] “comScore Releases September 2013 U.S. Search Engine Rankings.” comScore, Inc. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.comscore.com/Insights/Press_Releases/2013/10/comScore_Releases_September_2013_US_Search_Engine_Rankings.
[xxxv] “Amazon Product Ads” Amazon. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://services.amazon.com/content/product-ads-on-amazon.htm/ref=as_left_pads_apa1#!how-it-works
[xxxvi] Trifts, Valerie, and Gerald Häubl. “Information Availability and Consumer Preference: Can Online Retailers Benefit from . . .” In Journal of Consumer Psychology, 149–159, 2003.
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[xxxviii] Stone, Brad. The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon. Little, Brown and Company, 2013.
[xxxix] Lally, Phillippa, Cornelia H. M. van Jaarsveld, Henry W. W. Potts, and Jane Wardle. “How Are Habits Formed: Modelling Habit Formation in the Real World.” European Journal of Social Psychology 40, no. 6 (2010): 998–1009. doi:10.1002/ejsp.674.
[xl] Offit, Paul A. “Don’t Take Your Vitamins.” The New York Times, June 8, 2013, sec. Opinion / Sunday Review. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/09/opinion/sunday/dont-take-your-vitamins.html.
Chapter 2: Trigger
[xli] Accessed November 12, 2013. http://instagram.com/press/
[xlii] Perlroth, Somini Sengupta, Nicole, and Jenna Wortham. “Instagram Founders Were Helped by Bay Area Connections.” The New York Times, April 13, 2012, sec. Technology. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/14/technology/instagram-founders-were-helped-by-bay-area-connections.html.
[xliii] “Twitter ‘Tried to Buy Instagram before Facebook’.” Telegraph.co.uk, April 16, 2012, sec. twitter. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/twitter/9206312/Twitter-tried-to-buy-Instagram-before-Facebook.html.
[xliv] Schwartz, Barry. The Paradox of Choice. New York: ECCO, 2004.
[xlv] Masters, Blake. “Blakemasters.com.” Peter Thiel’s CS183: Startup - Class 2 Notes Essay, April 6, 2012. http://blakemasters.com/post/20582845717/peter-thiels-cs183-startup-class-2-notes-essay.
[xlvi] Katikalapudi, R., S. Chellappan, F. Montgomery, D. Wunsch, and K. Lutzen. “Associating Internet Usage with Depressive Behavior Among College Students.” IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 31, no. 4 (2012): 73–80. doi:10.1109/MTS.2012.2225462.
[xlvii] Chellappan, Sriram, and Raghavendra Kotikalapudi. “How Depressed People Use the Internet.” The New York Times, June 15, 2012, sec. Opinion / Sunday Review. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/17/opinion/sunday/how-depressed-people-use-the-internet.html.
[xlviii] “Twitter Founder Reveals Secret Formula for Getting Rich Online | Wired Business | Wired.com.” Wired Business. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.wired.com/business/2013/09/ev-williams-xoxo/.
[xlix] “How the ‘Failure’ Culture of Startups Is Killing Innovation | Wired Opinion | Wired.com.” Wired Opinion. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.wired.com/opinion/2013/09/why-do-research-when-you-can-fail-fast-pivot-and-act-out-other-popular-startup-cliches/.
[l] “The Power of User Narratives: Jack Dorsey (Square).” Video. Entrepreneurial Thought Leaders Lecture. Stanford University, 2011. http://ecorner.stanford.edu/authorMaterialInfo.html?mid=2644.
[li] “What is Customer Development.” Startup Lessons Learned by Eric Reis. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.startuplessonslearned.com/2008/11/what-is-customer-development.html
[lii] “Empathy Map.” The k12 Lab Wiki. Accessed November 12, 2013. https://dschool.stanford.edu/groups/k12/wiki/3d994/Empathy_Map.html
[liii] “5 Whys.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=5_Whys&oldid=581315459.
[liv] For more on the need for social belonging, see: Fiske, Susan T. Social Beings: a Core Motives Approach to Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley, 2010.
Chapter 3: Action
[lv] “What Causes Behavior Change?.” BJ Fogg’s Behavior Model. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.behaviormodel.org/
[lvi] Deci, Edward L., and Richard M. Ryan. “Self-determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development, and Health.” Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 49, no. 3 (2008): 182–185. doi:10.1037/a0012801.
[lvii] “Barack Obama ‘Hope’ Poster.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 5, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Barack_Obama_%22Hope%22_poster&oldid=579742540.
[lviii] Hauptly, Denis J. Something Really New: Three Simple Steps to Creating Truly Innovative Products. New York, NY u.a.: AMACOM, 2007.
[lix] “Twitter Founder Reveals Secret Formula for Getting Rich Online | Wired Business | Wired.com.” Wired Business. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.wired.com/business/2013/09/ev-williams-xoxo/.
[lx] Lunden, Ingrid. “Analyst: Twitter Passed 500M Users In June 2012, 140M Of Them In US; Jakarta ‘Biggest Tweeting’ City.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://techcrunch.com/2012/07/30/analyst-twitter-passed-500m-users-in-june-2012-140m-of-them-in-us-jakarta-biggest-tweeting-city/.
[lxi] “What Causes Behavior Change?.” BJ Fogg’s Behavior Model. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.behaviormodel.org/
[lxii] Rao, Leena. “Twitter Seeing 90 Million Tweets Per Day, 25 Percent Contain Links.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://techcrunch.com/2010/09/14/twitter-seeing-90-million-tweets-per-day/.
[lxiii] Worchel, Stephen, Jerry Lee, and Akanbi Adewole. “Effects of Supply and Demand on Ratings of Object Value.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32, no. 5 (1975): 906–914. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.116.
[lxiv] Weingarten, Gene. “Pearls Before Breakfast.” The Washington Post, April 8, 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/04/AR2007040401721.html.
[lxv] Plassmann, Hilke, John O’Doherty, Baba Shiv, and Antonio Rangel. “Marketing Actions Can Modulate Neural Representations of Experienced Pleasantness.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 3 (January 22, 2008): 1050–1054. doi:10.1073/pnas.0706929105.
[lxvi] Nunes, Joseph, and Xavier Dreze. The Endowed Progress Effect: How Artificial Advancement Increases Effort. SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=991962.
[lxvii] “List of Cognitive Biases.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_cognitive_biases&oldid=581363450.
[lxviii] Anderson, Stephen P. Seductive Interaction Design: Creating Playful, Fun, and Effective User Experiences. Berkeley, CA: New Riders, 2011.
Chapter 4: Variable Reward
[lxix] Olds, J., & Milner, P. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of the septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 419–427.
[lxx] Knutson, Brian, G Elliott Wimmer, Camelia M Kuhnen, and Piotr Winkielman. “Nucleus Accumbens Activation Mediates the Influence of Reward Cues on Financial Risk Taking.” Neuroreport 19, no. 5 (March 26, 2008): 509–513. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282f85c01.
[lxxi] Ramachandran, V. S. A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness: From Impostor Poodles to Purple Numbers. New York: Pi Press, 2004.
[lxxii] Pessiglione, Mathias, Ben Seymour, Guillaume Flandin, Raymond J. Dolan, and Chris D. Frith. “Dopamine-dependent Prediction Errors Underpin Reward-seeking Behaviour in Humans.” Nature 442, no. 7106 (August 31, 2006): 1042–1045. doi:10.1038/nature05051.
[lxxiii] Ferster, Charles B, and Skinner. Schedules of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.
[lxxiv] Berns GS, McClure SM, Pagnoni G, Montague PR.. Predictability modulates human brain response to reward" Journal of Neuroscience. 2001 Apr 15;21(8):2793-8.
[lxxv] Aharon, L., Etcoff, N., Ariely, D., CHabris, C. F., et al. Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence. Neuron 2001, 32, 357-551.
[lxxvi] A. Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.
[lxxvii] A. Bandura, Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Self-Control. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1997.
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[lxxx] Milton, Katharine. “A Hypothesis to Explain the Role of Meat-eating in Human Evolution.” Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 8, no. 1 (1999): 11–21. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6505(1999)8:1<11::AID-EVAN6>3.0.CO;2-M.
[lxxxi] Jha, Alok, and science correspondent. “Stone Me! Spears Show Early Human Species Was Sharper Than We Thought.” The Guardian, November 15, 2012, sec. Science. http://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/nov/15/stone-spear-early-human-species.
[lxxxii] McKie, Robin, and science editor. “Humans Hunted for Meat 2 Million Years Ago.” The Guardian, September 22, 2012, sec. Science. http://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/sep/23/human-hunting-evolution-2million-years?INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487.
[lxxxiii] The Barefoot Professor: By Nature Video, 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jrnj-7YKZE&feature=youtube_gdata_player.
[lxxxiv] Rivlin, Gary. “Slot Machines for the Young and Active.” The New York Times, December 10, 2007, sec. Business. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/10/business/10slots.html.
[lxxxv] “Pinterest Does Another Massive Funding — $225 Million at $3.8 Billion Valuation (Confirmed).” AllThingsD. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://allthingsd.com/20131023/pinterest-does-another-massive-funding-225-million-at-3-8-billion-valuation/.
[lxxxvi] Zeigarnik, B. (1927). Uber das Behalten yon erledigten und underledigten Handlungen. Psychologische Forschung, 9, 1-85.
[lxxxvii] Deci, Edward L., and Richard M. Ryan. “Self-determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development, and Health.” Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 49, no. 3 (2008): 182–185. doi:10.1037/a0012801.
[lxxxviii] Tsotsis, Alexia, and Leena Rao. “Mailbox Cost Dropbox Around $100 Million.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 29, 2013. http://techcrunch.com/2013/03/15/mailbox-cost-dropbox-around-100-million/.
[lxxxix] "Quantcast Audience Profile for mahalo.com". Quantcast.com. Accessed June 19, 2010 (according to Jason Calacanis.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 31, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jason_Calacanis&oldid=579577057). https://www.quantcast.com/mahalo.com
[xc] Cluley, Graham. “Creepy Quora Erodes Users’ Privacy, Reveals What You Have Read.” Naked Security. Accessed December 1, 2013. http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2012/08/09/creepy-quora-erodes-users-privacy-reveals-what-you-have-read/.
[xci] “Removing Feed Stories About Views.” Quora. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.quora.com/permalink/gG922bywy.
[xcii] Carpenter, Christopher J. “A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of the ‘But You Are Free’ Compliance-Gaining Technique.” Communication Studies 64, no. 1 (2013): 6–17. doi:10.1080/10510974.2012.727941.
[xciii] Hamari, Juho. “Social Aspects Play an Important Role in Gamification.” Gamification Research Network. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://gamification-research.org/2013/07/social-aspects/.
[xciv] Adalian, Josef. “Breaking Bad Returns to Its Biggest Ratings Ever.” Vulture. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://www.vulture.com/2013/08/breaking-bad-returns-to-its-biggest-ratings-ever.html.
[xcv] “Breaking Bad Cooks up Record-breaking Formula for GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS 2014 Edition.” Accessed November 13, 2013. http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/news/2013/9/breaking-bad-cooks-up-record-breaking-formula-for-guinness-world-records-2014-edition-51000/.
[xcvi] Kaufman, Geoff F, and Lisa K Libby. “Changing Beliefs and Behavior through Experience-taking.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103, no. 1 (July 2012): 1–19. doi:10.1037/a0027525.
[xcvii] “CityVille Tops FarmVille’s Highest Peak Of Monthly Users.” SocialTimes. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://socialtimes.com/cityville-tops-farmvilles-highest-peak-of-monthly-users_b33272.
[xcviii] Zynga, Inc. 2011 Annual Report. San Francisco, CA. Filed February 28, 2012
[xcix] Karmali, Luke. “Mists of Pandaria Pushes Warcraft Subs Over 10 Million.” IGN, October 4, 2012. http://www.ign.com/articles/2012/10/04/mists-of-pandaria-pushes-warcraft-subs-over-10-million.
Chapter 5: Investment
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[ci] Lord, James Gregory. The Raising of Money: 35 Essentials Trustees Are Using to Make a Difference. Seattle, Wash.: New Futures Press, 2010.
[cii] Cialdini, Robert B. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.
[ciii] Norton, Michael I., Daniel Mochon, and Dan Ariely. The “IKEA Effect”: When Labor Leads to Love. SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, March 4, 2011. http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1777100.
[civ] Freedman, J. L., & Fraser, S. C., Compliance Without Pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique, JPSP, 1966, 4, 196-202
[cv] Jesse Schell @ DICE2010 (Part 2), 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pPfaSxU6jyY&feature=youtube_gdata_player.
[cvi] Fogg, BJ, & Nass, C. (1997) How users reciprocate to computers: an experiment that demonstrates behavior change. In Proceedings of CHI 1997, ACM Press, 331-332.
[cvii] Libov, Jonathan. “On Bloomberg: ‘You Could Code Twitter in a Day. Then You’d Just Need to Build the Network and Infrastructure.’ Didn’t Know It Was so Easy!” Microblog. @libovness, November 7, 2013. https://twitter.com/libovness/status/398451464907259904.
[cviii] “Mobile App Analytics Show 26% of App Downloads Used One-time.” Localytics. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://www.localytics.com/blog/2011/first-impressions-matter-26-percent-of-apps-downloaded-used-just-once
[cix] Mon, Peter Farago on, Oct 22, and 2012. “App Engagement: The Matrix Reloaded.” Accessed November 13, 2013. http://blog.flurry.com/bid/90743/App-Engagement-The-Matrix-Reloaded.
[cx] Dating, Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Tinder’s Sean Rad Hints At A. Future Beyond, and Says The App Sees 350M Swipes A. Day. “Tinder’s Sean Rad Hints At A Future Beyond Dating, Says The App Sees 350M Swipes A Day.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://techcrunch.com/2013/10/29/sean-rad-disrupt/.
[cxi] “Snapchat: Self-destructing Messaging App Raises $60m in Funding.” The Guardian, June 25, 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/appsblog/2013/jun/25/snapchat-app-self-destructing-messaging.
[cxii] “Pinterest Does Another Massive Funding — $225 Million at $3.8 Billion Valuation (Confirmed).” AllThingsD. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://allthingsd.com/20131023/pinterest-does-another-massive-funding-225-million-at-3-8-billion-valuation/.
Chapter 6: What Are You Going to Do with This?
[cxiii] For further thoughts on the morality of designing behavior, see: Thaler, Richard H., Cass R. Sunstein, and John P. Balz. Choice Architecture. SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, April 2, 2010. http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1583509.
[cxiv] White, Charlie. “Survey: Cellphones Vs. Sex – Which Wins? [INFOGRAPHIC].” Mashable, August 3, 2011. http://mashable.com/2011/08/03/telenav-cellphone-infographic/.
[cxv] Bogost, Ian. “The Cigarette of This Century.” The Atlantic, June 6, 2012. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/06/the-cigarette-of-this-century/258092/.
[cxvi] Freedman, David H. “The Perfected Self.” The Atlantic, June 2012. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/06/the-perfected-self/308970/.
[cxvii] Graham, Paul. “The Acceleration of Addictiveness,” July 2010. Accessed November 12, 2013 http://www.paulgraham.com/addiction.html.
[cxviii] “The Ethical Line in User Experience Research.” mUmBRELLA. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://mumbrella.com.au/the-ethical-line-in-user-experience-research-163114.
[cxix] “How Deceptive Is Your Persuasive Design?” Accessed November 13, 2013. https://uxmag.com/articles/how-deceptive-is-your-persuasive-design.
[cxx] “GSB In Brief.” Accessed December 1, 2013. http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/bmag/sbsm0911/ss-kenyan.html.
[cxxi] Stewart, David. Demystifying Slot Machines and Their Impact in the United States. American Gaming Association, May 26, 2010. http://www.americangaming.org/sites/default/files/uploads/docs/whitepapers/demystifying_slot_machines_and_their_impact.pdf.
[cxxii] Shermer, Michael. “How We Opt Out of Overoptimism: Our Habit of Ignoring What Is Real Is a Double-Edged Sword: Scientific American.” Accessed November 13, 2013. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=opting-out-of-overoptimism.
[cxxiii] “The Curse of Cow Clicker: How a Cheeky Satire Became a Videogame Hit | Wired Magazine | Wired.com.” Wired Magazine. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/12/ff_cowclicker/.
Chapter 7: Case Study: The Bible App
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[cxxvi] Tsotsis, Alexia. “Snapchat Snaps Up A $80M Series B Led By IVP At An $800M Valuation.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://techcrunch.com/2013/06/22/source-snapchat-snaps-up-80m-from-ivp-at-a-800m-valuation/.
[cxxvii] “YouVersion Infographics.” Accessed November 13, 2013. http://blog.youversion.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/themobilebible1.jpg.
[cxxviii] Alford, Henry. “If I Do Humblebrag So Myself.” The New York Times, November 30, 2012, sec. Fashion & Style. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/02/fashion/bah-humblebrag-the-unfortunate-rise-of-false-humility.html.
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Chapter 8: Habit Testing and Where to Look for Habit-Forming Opportunities
[cxxx] Griffel, Mattan. “Discovering Your Aha! Moment.” GrowHack, December 4, 2012. http://www.growhack.com/2012/12/04/discovering-your-aha-moment/.
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[cxxxiv] West, Nancy Martha, “Kodak and The Lens of Nostalgia” The University Press of Virginia. 2000. p.95
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[cxxxviii] Maples, Jr, Mike. “Technology Waves and the Hypernet.” Roger and Mike’s Hypernet Blog. Accessed November 13, 2013. http://rogerandmike.com/post/14629058018/technology-waves-and-the-hypernet.