[i] “IDC-Facebook Always Connected.pdf - File Shared from Box.” Accessed December 19, 2013.

[ii] “Survey Finds One-Third of Americans More Willing to Give Up Sex Than Their Mobile Phones.” Accessed December 19, 2013.

广告:个人专属 VPN,独立 IP,无限流量,多机房切换,还可以屏蔽广告和恶意软件,每月最低仅 5 美元

[iii] Oulasvirta, Antti, Tye Rattenbury, Lingyi Ma, and Eeva Raita. “Habits Make Smartphone Use More Pervasive.” Personal Ubiquitous Comput. 16, no. 1 (January 2012): 105–114. doi:10.1007/s00779-011-0412-2.

[iv] Belic, Dusan, IntoMobile Thursday, February 9th, and 2012 at 12:50 AM. “Tomi Ahonen: Average Users Looks at Their Phone 150 Times a Day!” IntoMobile. Accessed December 19, 2013.

[v]  Morsella E, Bargh JA, Gollwitzer PM (eds) (2008) Oxford handbook of human action. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[vi] For purposes of this book, I use the definition of habit formation as the process of learning new behaviors through repetition until they become automatic. I am grateful to Dr. Stephen Wendel for pointing out the spectrum of habits. For a framework describing other automatic behaviors see: Bargh, John A. “The Four Horsemen of Automaticity: Awareness, Intention, Efficiency, and Control in Social Cognition.” In Handbook of Social Cognition, Vol. 1:  Basic Processes; Vol. 2:  Applications (2nd Ed.), edited by R. S. Wyer and T. K. Srull, 1–40. Hillsdale,  NJ,  England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, 1994.

[vii] Verplanken, Bas, and Wendy Wood. “Interventions to Break and Create Consumer Habits.” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 25, no. 1 (March 2006): 90–103. doi:10.1509/jppm.25.1.90.

[viii] Wood W, Neal DT (2007) A new look at habits and the habit-goal interface. Psychol Rev 114(4):843–863[viii].

[ix] “Pinterest.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 21, 2013.

[x]  “What Causes Behavior Change?.” BJ Fogg’s Behavior Model. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xi] Robert Sapolsky: Are Humans Just Another Primate? Accessed December 19, 2013.

[xii] Brevers, Damien, and Xavier Noël. “Pathological Gambling and the Loss of Willpower: A Neurocognitive Perspective.” Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 3, no. 0 (September 26, 2013). doi:10.3402/snp.v3i0.21592.

[xiii] “The Acceleration of Addictiveness,” Paul Graham. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xiv] “Night of the Living Dead.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 18, 2013.

[xv] Thaler, Richard H., Cass R. Sunstein, and John P. Balz. Choice Architecture. SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, April 2, 2010.

[xvi] For a memorable acronym of the Hook Model, think “ATARI”, as in the 1980s video gaming console. “A hook has four parts: Trigger, Action, Reward, and Investment.


Chapter 1: The Habit Zone

[xvii] Wood, Wendy, Jeffrey M Quinn, and Deborah A Kashy. “Habits in Everyday Life: Thought, Emotion, and Action.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83, no. 6 (December 2002): 1281–1297.

[xviii] Yin, Henry H., and Barbara J. Knowlton. “The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Habit Formation.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7, no. 6 (June 2006): 464–476. doi:10.1038/nrn1919.

[xix] Dickinson, A. & Balleine, B. (2002) The role of learning in the operation of motivational systems. In Gallistel, C.R. (ed.), Stevens’ Handbook of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Motivation, and Emotion. Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 497–534.

[xx] “Notes from 2005 Berkshire Hathaway Annual Meeting” Tilson Funds. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xxi] “Mungerisms: Charlie Munger: Turning $2 Million Into $2 Trillion.” Mungerisms. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xxii] “Candy Crush: So Popular It’s Killing King’s IPO?” Yahoo Finance. Accessed December 16, 2013.

[xxiii] “Evernote: ‘The Longer You Use It, the More Likely You Are to Pay’.” CNET. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xxiv] Freedman, David H. “Say Hello to Your New Brain.” Accessed November 14, 2013.

[xxv] Skok, David. “Lessons Learned – Viral Marketing.” For Entrepreneurs. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xxvi] Gourville, John T. “Eager Sellers and Stony Buyers: Understanding the Psychology of New-Product Adoption.” Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xxvii] Adams, Cecil. “Was the QWERTY Keyboard Purposely Designed to Slow Typists?,” October 30, 1981.

[xxviii] Bouton, Mark E. “Context and Behavioral Processes in Extinction.” Learning & Memory 11, no. 5 (September 1, 2004): 485–494. doi:10.1101/lm.78804.

[xxix] Kirshenbaum, Ari P., Darlene M. Olsen, and Warren K. Bickel. “A Quantitative Review of the Ubiquitous Relapse Curve.” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 36, no. 1 (January 2009): 8–17. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2008.04.001.

[xxx] Jeffery, Robert W., Leonard H. Epstein, G. Terence, Adam Drewnowski, Albert J. Stunkard, and Rena R. Wing. “Long-term Maintenance of Weight Loss: Current Status.” Health Psychology 19, no. 1, Suppl (2000): 5–16. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.19.Suppl1.5.

[xxxi] Duhigg, Charles. The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. New York: Random House, 2012. p 20.

[xxxii] Judah, G., B. Gardner, and R. Aunger. “Forming a Flossing Habit: An Exploratory Study of the Psychological Determinants of Habit Formation.” British Journal of Health Psychology 18 (2013): 338–353.

[xxxiii] “Bing Your Brain: Test, Then Test Again.” Accessed December 16, 2013.

[xxxiv] “comScore Releases September 2013 U.S. Search Engine Rankings.” comScore, Inc. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xxxv] “Amazon Product Ads” Amazon. Accessed November 12, 2013.!how-it-works

[xxxvi] Trifts, Valerie, and Gerald Häubl. “Information Availability and Consumer Preference: Can Online Retailers Benefit from . . .” In Journal of Consumer Psychology, 149–159, 2003.

[xxxvii] “More Retailers at Risk of Amazon ‘Showrooming’.” Bits Blog. Accessed December 16, 2013.

[xxxviii] Stone, Brad. The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon. Little, Brown and Company, 2013.

[xxxix] Lally, Phillippa, Cornelia H. M. van Jaarsveld, Henry W. W. Potts, and Jane Wardle. “How Are Habits Formed: Modelling Habit Formation in the Real World.” European Journal of Social Psychology 40, no. 6 (2010): 998–1009. doi:10.1002/ejsp.674.

[xl] Offit, Paul A. “Don’t Take Your Vitamins.” The New York Times, June 8, 2013, sec. Opinion / Sunday Review.


Chapter 2: Trigger

[xli] Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xlii] Perlroth, Somini Sengupta, Nicole, and Jenna Wortham. “Instagram Founders Were Helped by Bay Area Connections.” The New York Times, April 13, 2012, sec. Technology.

[xliii] “Twitter ‘Tried to Buy Instagram before Facebook’.”, April 16, 2012, sec. twitter.

[xliv] Schwartz, Barry. The Paradox of Choice. New York: ECCO, 2004.

[xlv] Masters, Blake. “” Peter Thiel’s CS183: Startup - Class 2 Notes Essay, April 6, 2012.

[xlvi] Katikalapudi, R., S. Chellappan, F. Montgomery, D. Wunsch, and K. Lutzen. “Associating Internet Usage with Depressive Behavior Among College Students.” IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 31, no. 4 (2012): 73–80. doi:10.1109/MTS.2012.2225462.

[xlvii] Chellappan, Sriram, and Raghavendra Kotikalapudi. “How Depressed People Use the Internet.” The New York Times, June 15, 2012, sec. Opinion / Sunday Review.

[xlviii] “Twitter Founder Reveals Secret Formula for Getting Rich Online | Wired Business |” Wired Business. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xlix] “How the ‘Failure’ Culture of Startups Is Killing Innovation | Wired Opinion |” Wired Opinion. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[l] “The Power of User Narratives: Jack Dorsey (Square).” Video. Entrepreneurial Thought Leaders Lecture. Stanford University, 2011.

[li] “What is Customer Development.” Startup Lessons Learned by Eric Reis. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lii] “Empathy Map.” The k12 Lab Wiki. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[liii] “5 Whys.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 12, 2013.

[liv] For more on the need for social belonging, see: Fiske, Susan T. Social Beings: a Core Motives Approach to Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley, 2010.


Chapter 3: Action

[lv] “What Causes Behavior Change?.” BJ Fogg’s Behavior Model. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lvi] Deci, Edward L., and Richard M. Ryan. “Self-determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development, and Health.” Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 49, no. 3 (2008): 182–185. doi:10.1037/a0012801.

[lvii] “Barack Obama ‘Hope’ Poster.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 5, 2013.

[lviii] Hauptly, Denis J. Something Really New: Three Simple Steps to Creating Truly Innovative Products. New York, NY u.a.: AMACOM, 2007.

[lix] “Twitter Founder Reveals Secret Formula for Getting Rich Online | Wired Business |” Wired Business. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lx] Lunden, Ingrid. “Analyst: Twitter Passed 500M Users In June 2012, 140M Of Them In US; Jakarta ‘Biggest Tweeting’ City.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lxi]  “What Causes Behavior Change?.” BJ Fogg’s Behavior Model. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lxii] Rao, Leena. “Twitter Seeing 90 Million Tweets Per Day, 25 Percent Contain Links.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lxiii] Worchel, Stephen, Jerry Lee, and Akanbi Adewole. “Effects of Supply and Demand on Ratings of Object Value.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32, no. 5 (1975): 906–914. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.32.5.906.

[lxiv] Weingarten, Gene. “Pearls Before Breakfast.” The Washington Post, April 8, 2007.

[lxv] Plassmann, Hilke, John O’Doherty, Baba Shiv, and Antonio Rangel. “Marketing Actions Can Modulate Neural Representations of Experienced Pleasantness.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, no. 3 (January 22, 2008): 1050–1054. doi:10.1073/pnas.0706929105.

[lxvi] Nunes, Joseph, and Xavier Dreze. The Endowed Progress Effect: How Artificial Advancement Increases Effort. SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lxvii] “List of Cognitive Biases.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 12, 2013.

[lxviii] Anderson, Stephen P. Seductive Interaction Design: Creating Playful, Fun, and Effective User Experiences. Berkeley, CA: New Riders, 2011.


Chapter 4: Variable Reward

[lxix] Olds, J., & Milner, P. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of the septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 419–427.

[lxx] Knutson, Brian, G Elliott Wimmer, Camelia M Kuhnen, and Piotr Winkielman. “Nucleus Accumbens Activation Mediates the Influence of Reward Cues on Financial Risk Taking.” Neuroreport 19, no. 5 (March 26, 2008): 509–513. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282f85c01.

[lxxi] Ramachandran, V. S. A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness: From Impostor Poodles to Purple Numbers. New York: Pi Press, 2004.

[lxxii] Pessiglione, Mathias, Ben Seymour, Guillaume Flandin, Raymond J. Dolan, and Chris D. Frith. “Dopamine-dependent Prediction Errors Underpin Reward-seeking Behaviour in Humans.” Nature 442, no. 7106 (August 31, 2006): 1042–1045. doi:10.1038/nature05051.

[lxxiii] Ferster, Charles B, and Skinner. Schedules of Reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957.

[lxxiv] Berns GS, McClure SM, Pagnoni G, Montague PR.. Predictability modulates human brain response to reward" Journal of Neuroscience. 2001 Apr 15;21(8):2793-8.

[lxxv] Aharon, L., Etcoff, N., Ariely, D., CHabris, C. F., et al. Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence. Neuron 2001, 32, 357-551.

[lxxvi] A. Bandura, Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.

[lxxvii] A. Bandura, Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Self-Control. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1997.

[lxxviii] “Why Humanizing Players And Developers Is Crucial For League of Legends.” Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lxxix] “League of Legends: Changing Bad Player Behavior with Neuroscience.” Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lxxx] Milton, Katharine. “A Hypothesis to Explain the Role of Meat-eating in Human Evolution.” Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 8, no. 1 (1999): 11–21. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6505(1999)8:1<11::AID-EVAN6>3.0.CO;2-M.

[lxxxi] Jha, Alok, and science correspondent. “Stone Me! Spears Show Early Human Species Was Sharper Than We Thought.” The Guardian, November 15, 2012, sec. Science.

[lxxxii] McKie, Robin, and science editor. “Humans Hunted for Meat 2 Million Years Ago.” The Guardian, September 22, 2012, sec. Science.

[lxxxiii] The Barefoot Professor: By Nature Video, 2010.

[lxxxiv] Rivlin, Gary. “Slot Machines for the Young and Active.” The New York Times, December 10, 2007, sec. Business.

[lxxxv] “Pinterest Does Another Massive Funding — $225 Million at $3.8 Billion Valuation (Confirmed).” AllThingsD. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[lxxxvi]  Zeigarnik, B. (1927). Uber das Behalten yon erledigten und underledigten Handlungen. Psychologische Forschung, 9, 1-85.

[lxxxvii] Deci, Edward L., and Richard M. Ryan. “Self-determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development, and Health.” Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 49, no. 3 (2008): 182–185. doi:10.1037/a0012801.

[lxxxviii] Tsotsis, Alexia, and Leena Rao. “Mailbox Cost Dropbox Around $100 Million.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 29, 2013.

[lxxxix] "Quantcast Audience Profile for". Accessed June 19, 2010 (according to Jason Calacanis.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, October 31, 2013.

[xc] Cluley, Graham. “Creepy Quora Erodes Users’ Privacy, Reveals What You Have Read.” Naked Security. Accessed December 1, 2013.

[xci] “Removing Feed Stories About Views.” Quora. Accessed November 12, 2013.

[xcii] Carpenter, Christopher J. “A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of the ‘But You Are Free’ Compliance-Gaining Technique.” Communication Studies 64, no. 1 (2013): 6–17. doi:10.1080/10510974.2012.727941.

[xciii] Hamari, Juho. “Social Aspects Play an Important Role in Gamification.” Gamification Research Network. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[xciv] Adalian, Josef. “Breaking Bad Returns to Its Biggest Ratings Ever.” Vulture. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[xcv] “Breaking Bad Cooks up Record-breaking Formula for GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS 2014 Edition.” Accessed November 13, 2013.

[xcvi] Kaufman, Geoff F, and Lisa K Libby. “Changing Beliefs and Behavior through Experience-taking.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103, no. 1 (July 2012): 1–19. doi:10.1037/a0027525.

[xcvii] “CityVille Tops FarmVille’s Highest Peak Of Monthly Users.” SocialTimes. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[xcviii] Zynga, Inc. 2011 Annual Report. San Francisco, CA. Filed February 28, 2012


[xcix] Karmali, Luke. “Mists of Pandaria Pushes Warcraft Subs Over 10 Million.” IGN, October 4, 2012.


Chapter 5: Investment

[c] “Taiwan Teen Dies after Gaming for 40 Hours.” The Australian. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[ci] Lord, James Gregory. The Raising of Money: 35 Essentials Trustees Are Using to Make a Difference. Seattle, Wash.: New Futures Press, 2010.

[cii] Cialdini, Robert B. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.

[ciii] Norton, Michael I., Daniel Mochon, and Dan Ariely. The “IKEA Effect”: When Labor Leads to Love. SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, March 4, 2011.

[civ] Freedman, J. L., & Fraser, S. C., Compliance Without Pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique, JPSP, 1966, 4, 196-202

[cv] Jesse Schell @ DICE2010 (Part 2), 2010.

[cvi] Fogg, BJ, & Nass, C. (1997) How users reciprocate to computers: an experiment that demonstrates behavior change. In Proceedings of CHI 1997, ACM Press, 331-332.

[cvii] Libov, Jonathan. “On Bloomberg: ‘You Could Code Twitter in a Day. Then You’d Just Need to Build the Network and Infrastructure.’ Didn’t Know It Was so Easy!” Microblog. @libovness, November 7, 2013.

[cviii] “Mobile App Analytics Show 26% of App Downloads Used One-time.” Localytics. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cix] Mon, Peter Farago on, Oct 22, and 2012. “App Engagement: The Matrix Reloaded.” Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cx] Dating, Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Tinder’s Sean Rad Hints At A. Future Beyond, and Says The App Sees 350M Swipes A. Day. “Tinder’s Sean Rad Hints At A Future Beyond Dating, Says The App Sees 350M Swipes A Day.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cxi] “Snapchat: Self-destructing Messaging App Raises $60m in Funding.” The Guardian, June 25, 2013.

[cxii] “Pinterest Does Another Massive Funding — $225 Million at $3.8 Billion Valuation (Confirmed).” AllThingsD. Accessed November 13, 2013.


Chapter 6: What Are You Going to Do with This?

[cxiii] For further thoughts on the morality of designing behavior, see: Thaler, Richard H., Cass R. Sunstein, and John P. Balz. Choice Architecture. SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, April 2, 2010.

[cxiv] White, Charlie. “Survey: Cellphones Vs. Sex – Which Wins? [INFOGRAPHIC].” Mashable, August 3, 2011.

[cxv] Bogost, Ian. “The Cigarette of This Century.” The Atlantic, June 6, 2012.

[cxvi] Freedman, David H. “The Perfected Self.” The Atlantic, June 2012.

[cxvii] Graham, Paul. “The Acceleration of Addictiveness,” July 2010. Accessed November 12, 2013

[cxviii] “The Ethical Line in User Experience Research.” mUmBRELLA. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cxix] “How Deceptive Is Your Persuasive Design?” Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cxx] “GSB In Brief.” Accessed December 1, 2013.

[cxxi] Stewart, David. Demystifying Slot Machines and Their Impact in the United States. American Gaming Association, May 26, 2010.

[cxxii] Shermer, Michael. “How We Opt Out of Overoptimism: Our Habit of Ignoring What Is Real Is a Double-Edged Sword: Scientific American.” Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cxxiii] “The Curse of Cow Clicker: How a Cheeky Satire Became a Videogame Hit | Wired Magazine |” Wired Magazine. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cxxiv] “Cowpocalypse Now.” Ian Bogost. Accessed November 13, 2013.


Chapter 7:  Case Study: The Bible App

[cxxv] “On Fifth Anniversary of Apple iTunes Store, YouVersion Bible App Reaches 100 Million Downloads: First-Ever Survey Shows How App Is Truly Changing Bible Engagement.” PRWeb, July 8, 2013.

[cxxvi] Tsotsis, Alexia. “Snapchat Snaps Up A $80M Series B Led By IVP At An $800M Valuation.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cxxvii] “YouVersion Infographics.” Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cxxviii] Alford, Henry. “If I Do Humblebrag So Myself.” The New York Times, November 30, 2012, sec. Fashion & Style.

[cxxix] Tamir, Diana I., and Jason P. Mitchell. “Disclosing Information About the Self Is Intrinsically Rewarding.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (May 7, 2012): 201202129. doi:10.1073/pnas.1202129109.


Chapter 8: Habit Testing and Where to Look for Habit-Forming Opportunities

[cxxx] Griffel, Mattan. “Discovering Your Aha! Moment.” GrowHack, December 4, 2012.

[cxxxi] Graham, Paul. “Schlep Blindness,” January 2012.

[cxxxii] Gascoigne, Joel. “Buffer October Update: $2,388,000 Annual Revenue Run Rate, 1,123,000 Users,” November 7, 2013.

[cxxxiii] “I’m Joel Gascoigne, and This Is the Story Behind Buffer.” Life Hacker. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cxxxiv] West, Nancy Martha, “Kodak and The Lens of Nostalgia” The University Press of Virginia. 2000. p.95

[cxxxv] Cosier, G., & Hughes, P. M. (2001). The Problem with Disruption. BT Technology, 19(4), 9.

[cxxxvi] Pickover, Clifford A. Time: A Traveler’s Guide. Oxford University Press, USA, 1998.

[cxxxvii] Stoll, Clifford. “The Internet? Bah!” Newsweek, February 27, 1995.

[cxxxviii] Maples, Jr, Mike. “Technology Waves and the Hypernet.” Roger and Mike’s Hypernet Blog. Accessed November 13, 2013.

[cxxxix] “How to Get Startup Ideas,” November 2012.