注释

前言

“In my retiring room…” and “I keep the key…” and “The feeling of repose and renewal…”: Jung, Carl. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Trans. Richard Winston. New York: Pantheon, 1963.

广告:个人专属 VPN,独立 IP,流量大,速度快,连接稳定,多机房切换,每月最低仅 5 美元

“Although he had many patients…” and other information on artists’ habits: Currey, Mason. Daily Rituals: How Artists Work. New York: Knopf, 2013.

The following timeline of Jung’s life and work also proved useful in untangling the role of deep work in his career: Cowgill, Charles. “Carl Jung.”May 1997. http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/jung.htm

For more on deliberate practice, the following two books provide a good popular overview:

· Colvin, Geoffrey. Talent is Overrated: What Really Separates World-Class Performers from Everybody Else. New York: Portfolio, 2008.

· Coyle, Daniel. The Talent Code: Greatness Isn’t Born. It’s Grown. Here’s How. New York: Bantam, 2009.

Anders Ericsson from Florida State University is a leading academic researcher on the concept of deliberate practice. He has a nice description of the idea on his academic website: http://www.psy.fsu.edu/faculty/ericsson/ericsson.exp.perf.html

My list of the deep work habits of important personalities draws from the following sources:

· Montaigne information comes from: Bakewell, Sarah. How to Live: Or A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer. New York: Other Press, 2010.

· Mark Twain information comes from: Mason Currey’s Daily Rituals (see above).

· Woody Allen information comes from Robert Weide’s 2011 documentary, Woody Allen: A Documentary.

· Peter Higgs information comes from: http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/oct/08/nobel-laureate-peter-higgs-boson-elusive

· J.K. Rowling information comes from: https://twitter.com/jk_rowling

· Bill Gates information comes from: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB111196625830690477

· Neal Stephenson information comes from an older version of Stephenson’s website which has been preserved in a December, 2003 snapshot by The Internet Archive: http://web. archive.org/web/20031207060405/ http://www.well.com/~neal/badcorrespondent.html

“A 2012 McKinsey study found that…”: Chui, Michael, et al.“The Social Economy: Unlocking Value and Productivity Through Social Technologies.” http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_ telecoms_internet/the_social_economy

“What the Net seems to be doing is…” and “I’m not the only one”: Carr, Nicholas.“Is Google Making Us Stupid?” The Atlantic Monthly, July/August 2008. Also online at: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/07/is-google-making-us-stupid/306868/

The fact that Carr had to move to a cabin to finish writing The Shallows comes from the Author’s Note in the paperback version of the book.

“superpower of the 21st century”: http://www.bakadesuyo.com/2013/09/stay-focused/

第 1 章

Information about Nate Silver’s election traffic on the New York Times web site: http://www.newrepublic.com/article/109714/nate-silvers-fivethirtyeight-blog-drawing-massive-traffic-new-york-times

Information about Nate Silver’s ESPN/ABC News deal: http://www.politico.com/blogs/media/2013/07/how-espn-and-abc-landed-nate-silver-168888.html

Examples of concerns regarding Silver’s methodology:

· http://dailycaller.com/2012/11/01/is-nate-silvers-value-at-risk/

· http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2013/01/what-nate-silver-gets-wrong.html

Information about David Heinemeier Hansson comes from the following web sites:

· http://david.heinemeierhansson.com/

· http://www.techradar.com/us/news/internet/the-secrets-behind-37signals-success-712499

· http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OAK_Racing

For more on John Doerr’s deals: http://www.forbes.com/profile/john-doerr/

The $3.3 Billion dollar net worth of John Doerr was retrieved from the following Forbes.com profile page on April 10, 2014: http://www.forbes.com/profile/john-doerr/

“We are in the early throes of a Great Restructuring…” and “Our technologies are racing ahead…”: from page 9 of Brynojolfsson, Erik and Andrew McAfee. Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy. Cambridge, MA: Brynojolfsson and McAfee, 2012.

“other technologies like data visualization, analytics, high speed communications”: Ibid., 9.

“The key question will be: are you good at working with intelligent machines or not?”: from page 1 of Cowen, Tyler. Average is Over. New York: Penguin, 2013.

Rosen, Sherwin.“The Economics of Superstars.” The American Economic Review 71.5 (Dec. 1981): 845-858.

“Hearing a succession of mediocre singers does not add up to a single outstanding performance”: Ibid., 846.

The Instagram example, and its significance for labor disparities, were first brought to my attention by the writing/speaking of Jaron Lanier.

如何在新经济形势下成为赢家

Details on Nate Silver’s tools:

· http://www.businessinsider.com/how-nate-silver-and-fivethityeight-works-2012-11

· http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/166yeo/iama_blogger_ for_fivethirtyeight_at_the_new_york

· www.stata.com/why-use-stata/

The SQL example I gave was from postgreSQL, an open source database system popular in both industry and (especially) academia. I don’t know what specific system Silver uses, but it almost certainly requires some variant of the SQL language used in this example.

深度工作帮助你迅速掌握困难的事物

“Let your mind become a lens…”: from page 95 of Sertillanges, Antonin-Dalmace. The Intellectual Life: Its Spirits, Conditions, Methods. Trans. Mary Ryan. Cork: The Mercier Press, 1948.

“the development and deepening of the mind”: Ibid., 13.

Details about deliberate practice draw heavily on following the seminal survey paper on the topic: Ericsson, K.A., R. Krampe, and C. Tesch-Romer.“The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance.”Psychological Review,100.3 (1993): 363-406.

“we deny that these differences [between expert performers and normal adults] are immutable…”: from page 400 of Ericsson (1993).

“men of genius themselves…”: from page 95 of Sertillanges (1948).

“[Recent analyses] reveal an enjoyable state of effortless mastery…”: from page 368 of Ericsson (1993).

For more on“flow”see: Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.

Details on the neurobiology of expert performance can be found in: Coyle (2009).

Coyle also has a nice slideshow about myelination at his website: www.thetalentcode.com/myelin

深度工作有助于精英级产出的实现

More about Adam Grant, his records, and his (30-page long) CV can be found at his academic web site: https://mgmt.wharton.upenn.edu/profile/1323/

Grant, Adam. Give and Take: Why Helping Others Drives Our Success. New York: Viking Adult, 2013.

The article on Adam Grant in The New York Times Sunday Magazine: Dominus, Susan.“The Saintly Way to Succeed.”The New York Times Sunday Magazine, 31 March 2013: MM20.

Grant’s claim that he tries to stack his three annual courses into a single semester (usually the fall) is hard to independently verify without access to the University of Pennsylvania course system. I was able to verify, however, that during the spring of 2014, when I wrote this chapter, the official University web site reported“no courses currently offered”under teaching on Grant’s site.

Newport, Cal. How to Become a Straight-A Student: The Unconventional Strategies Used by Real College Students to Score High While Studying Less. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2006.

Leroy, Sophie.“Why Is It So Hard to Do My Work? The Challenge of Attention Residue When Switching Between Work Tasks.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 109 (2009): 168–181.

杰克·多西是怎么回事?

“he is a disrupter on a massive scale and a repeat offender…” and “I do a lot of my work at stand-up tables…” and details on Jack Dorsey’s daily schedule come from the following Forbes.com article: http://www.forbes.com/sites/ericsavitz/2012/10/17/jack-dorsey-the-leadership-secrets-of-twitter-and-square/3/

The cited Jack Dorsey net worth number was accessed on the following Forbes.com profile on April 10, 2014: http://www.forbes.com/profile/jack-dorsey/

“I can go a good solid Saturday without…”: from an interview with Kerry Trainor that was conducted in October, 2013 by HuffPoLive. A clip with the e-mail usage quote is available here: http://www.kirotv.com/videos/technology/how-long-can-vimeo-ceo-kerry-trainor-go-without/vCCBLd/

第 2 章

“the largest open floor plan in the world” and other information about Facebook’s new headquarters: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/04/business/global-office-open-plan/

“We encourage people to stay out in the open…” and other information about Square’s headquarters:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/ericsavitz/2012/10/17/jack-dorsey-the-leadership-secrets-of-twitter-and-square

“province of chatty teenagers…” and “new productivity gains…” from the following New York Times article about Instant Messaging: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/05/technology/techspecial4/05message.html

More on Hall can be found at Hall.com and in this article: http://techcrunch.com/2011/10/16/hall-com-raises-580k-from-founders-collective-and-others-to-transform-realtime-collaboration/

An up-to-date list of the more than 600 New York Times employees using Twitter: https://twitter.com/nytimes/nyt-journalists/members

The original Jonathan Franzen piece for The Guardian was published online on September 13, 2013, with the title“Jonathan Franzen: What’s Wrong With the Modern World.”The piece has since been removed for“copyright”issues, but you can still find the description of the article online: http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/sep/13/jonathan-franzen-wrong-modern-world

Here is the Slate piece that ended up titled“Jonathan Franzen’s Lonely War on the Internet Continues.”Notice from the URL that the original title was even harsher: http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_ tense/2013/10/04/jonathan_franzen_says_twitter_is_a_coercive_ development_is_grumpy_and_out.html

“Franzen’s a category of one…”: from Jennifer Weiner’s response to Franzen in The New Republic: http://www.newrepublic.com/article/114762/jennifer-weiner-responds-jonathan-franzen

“massive distraction…” and “if you are just getting into some work”: http://www.thesoundagency.com/2011/sound-news/more-damaging-evidence-on-open-plan-offices/

“this was reported by subjects…” and related results from: Mark, Gloria, Victor M. Gonzalez, and Justin Harris.“No Task Left Behind? Examining the Nature of Fragmented Work.”Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 2005.

“Twitter is crack for media addicts” and other details of George Packer’s thoughts about social media: http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/georgepacker/2010/01/stop-the-world.html

度量的黑洞

“A ‘free and frictionless’ method of communication” and other details of Tom Cochran’s e-mail experiment: http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/04/email-is-not-free/

“it is objectively difficult to measure individual…”: from page 509 of Piketty, Thomas. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2014.

“undoubtedly true”: http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/382084/pikettys-can-opener-jim-manzi. This careful and critical review of Piketty’s book by Jim Manzi is where I originally came across the above Piketty citation.

最小阻力原则

“At first, the team resisted” and “putting their careers in jeopardy” and “a better product delivered to the client” as well as a good summary of Leslie Perlow’s connectivity research can be found in Perlow, Leslie A. and Jessica L. Porter.“Making Time Off Predictable—and Required.”Harvard Business Review Magazine, October 2009. Also available online: https://hbr.org/2009/10/ making-time-off-predictable-and-required

For more on David Allen’s task-management system, see his book: Allen, David. Getting Things Done. New York: Viking, 2001.

Allen’s fifteen-element task management flowchart can be found in the above book as well as online: http://gettingthingsdone.com/pdfs/tt_ workflow_chart.pdf

忙碌代表生产能力

The h-index for an academic is (roughly speaking) the largest value x that satisfies the following rule:“I have published at least x papers with x or more citations.”Notice, this value manages to capture both how many papers you have written and how often you are cited. You cannot gain a high h-index value simply by pumping out a lot of low value papers, or by having a small number of papers that are cited often. This metric tends to grow over careers, which is why in many fields h-index goals are tied to certain career milestones.

“To do real good physics work…”: comes around the 28:20 mark in the following interview: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bgaw9qe7DEE

“Managers themselves inhabit a bewildering psychic landscape”: from page 9 of Crawford, Matthew. Shop Class as Soulcraft. New York: Penguin, 2009.

“cranking widgets”: This concept is a popular metaphor in discussing David Allen’s task management system; c.f., http://www.43folders.com/2006/10/10/productive-talk-procrastination and http://schuller. id.au/2008/04/09/the-power-of-cranking-widgets-gtd-times/and http://zenhabits.net/cranking-widgets-turn-your-work-into/

More on Marissa Mayer’s working from home prohibition: http://www.businessinsider.com/how-marissa-mayer-figured-out-work-at-home-yahoos-were-slacking-off-2013-3

对互联网的顶礼膜拜

Alissa Rubin tweets at @Alissanyt. I don’t have specific evidence that Alissa Rubin was pressured to tweet. But I can make a circumstantial case: she includes“nyt”in her Twitter handle, and The Times maintains a Social Media Desk that helps educate its employees about how to use social media (c.f., https://www.mediabistro.com/alltwitter/new-york-times-social-media-desk_ b53783), a focus that has led to over 600 employees tweeting: https://twitter.com/nytimes/nyt-journalists/members

Here is an example of one of Alissa Rubin’s articles that I encountered when writing this chapter: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/09/world/africa/claims-of-french-complicity-in-rwandas-genocide-rekindle-mutual-resentment.html?ref=alissajohannsenrubin

Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology: New York: Vintage Books,1993.

“It does not make them illegal”: Ibid., 48.

“It’s this propensity to view ‘the Internet’ as a source of wisdom…”: from page 25 of Morozov, Evgeny. To Save Everything, Click Here. New York: PublicAffairs, 2013.

第 3 章

“I do all my work by hand…”: from Ric Furrer’s artist statement, which can be found online, along with general biographical details on Furrer and information about his business: http://www.doorcountyforgeworks.com

“This part, the initial break down…” and “you have to be very gentle…” and “it’s ready…” and “To do it right, it is the most complicated thing…”: from the PBS documentary,“Secrets of the Viking Swords,”which is an episode of NOVA that first aired on September 25, 2013. For more information on the episode and online streaming see: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/secrets-viking-sword.html

“The satisfactions of manifesting oneself concretely…”: from page 15 of Matthew Crawford (2009).

“The world of the information superhighways…”: from Ric Furrer’s artist statement: http://www.doorcountyforgeworks.com

从神经学角度论证深度

“not just cancer...” and “This disease wanted to…” and “movies, walks…”: from page 3 of Gallagher, Winifred. Rapt: Attention and the Focused Life. New York, Penguin, 2009.

“Like fingers pointing to the moon…”: Ibid., 2.

“who you are…”: Ibid., 1.

“reset button…”: Ibid., 48. “Rather than continue to focus…”: Ibid., 49.

Though Rapt provides a good summary of Barbara Fredrickson’s research on positivity (see pages 49 – 49), more details can be found in Fredrickson’s 2009 book on the topic: Frederickson, Barbara. Positivity: Groundbreaking Research Reveals How to Embrace the Hidden Strength of Positive Emotions, Overcome Negativity, and Thrive. New York: Crown Archetype, 2009.

The Laura Carstensen research was featured in Rapt (see pages 50 – 51). For more information see the following article: Carstensen, Laura L., and Joseph A. Mikels.“At the Intersection of Emotion and Cognition Aging and the Positivity Effect.”Current Directions in Psychological Science 14.3 (2005): 117-121.

“concentration so intense…”: from page 71 of Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1990.

“five years of reporting…”: from page 13 of Gallagher (2009).

“I’ll choose my targets with care…”: Ibid., 14.

从心理学角度论证深度

For more on the experience sampling method, read the original article here:

Larson, Reed, and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi.“The Experience Sampling Method.”New Directions for Methodology of Social & Behavioral Science. City: Publisher, 1983.

You can also find a short summary of the technique at Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experience_sampling_method

“the best moments usually occur…”: from page 3 of Csikszentmihalyi. (1990).

“Ironically, jobs are actually easier to enjoy…”: Ibid., 162.

“jobs should be resdesigned…”: Ibid.,157.

从哲学角度论证深度

“The world used to be…”: from page xi of Dreyfus, Hubert and Sean Dorrance Kelly. All Things Shining: Reading the Western Classics to Find Meaning in a Secular Age. New York: Free Press, 2011.

“The Enlightenment’s metaphysical embrace…”: Ibid., 204.

“Because each piece of wood is distinct…”: Ibid., 210.

“is not to generate meaning…”: Ibid., 209.

“Beautiful code is short and concise…”: from a THNKR interview with Santiago Gonzalez available online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DBXZWB_dNsw

“We who cut mere stones…” and “within the overall structure…”: from the preface of Hunt, Andrew and David Thomas. The Pragmatic Programmer: From Journeyman to Master. New York: Addison-Wesley Professional, 1999.

深度智人

“I’ll live the focused life…”: from page 14 of Gallagher (2009).

准则 1 

Hoffman, W., R. Baumeister, G. Förster, and K. Vohs.“Everyday Temptations: An Experience Sampling Study of Desire, Conflict, and Self-Control.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102.6 (2012): 1318-1335.

“Desire turned out to be the norm, not the exception…”: from page 3 of Baumeister, Roy F., and John Tierney. Willpower: Rediscovering the Greatest Human Strength. New York: The Penguin Press, 2011.

“taking a break from [hard] work…”: Ibid., 4.

Original study: Baumeister, R., E. Bratlavsky, M. Muraven, and D. M. Tice.“Ego Depletion: Is the Active Self a Limited Resource?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 (1998): 1252 – 65.

选定你的深度哲学

“What I do takes long hours of studying…” and “I have been a happy man…”: from Donald Knuth’s web page: http://www-cs-faculty. stanford.edu/~uno/email.html

“Persons who wish to interfere with my concentration…”: from Neal Stephensen’s old web site, in a page titled“My Ongoing Battle with Continuous Partial Attention,”archived in December, 2003: http://web.archive.org/web/20031231203738/ http://www.well.com/~neal/

“The productivity equation is a non-linear one…”: from Neal Stephensen’s old web site, in a page titled“Why I’m a Bad Correspondent,”archived in December, 2003: http://web. archive.org/web/20031207060405/ http://www.well.com/~neal/badcorrespondent.html

Stephensen, Neal. Anathem. New York: William Morrow, 2008.

For more on the connection between Anathem and the tension between focus and distraction, see the following interview:“Interview with Neal Stephensen,”published on GoodReads.com in September, 2008: http://www.goodreads.com/interviews/show/14.Neal_ Stephenson

“I saw my chance…”: from the (Internet) famous“Don’t Break the Chain”article by Brad Isaac, writing for Lifehacker.com: http://lifehacker.com/281626/jerry-seinfelds-productivity-secret

“one of the best magazine journalists…”: http://www.lrb.co.uk/v14/n20/christopher-hitchens/touch-of-evil

Isaacson, Walter and Evan Thomas. The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made. New York: Simon and Schuster Reissue Edition, 2012. (The original version of this book was published in 1986, but it was recently republished in hardcover due presumably to Isaacson’s recent publishing success.)

“richly textured account” and “fashioned a Cold War Plutarch”: from the excerpts of reviews of Walter Isaacson’s The Wise Men that I found in the book jacket blurbs reproduced on Simon and Schuster’s official web site for the book: http://books.simonandschuster.com/The-Wise-Men/Walter-Isaacson/9781476728827

习惯化

“every inch of [Caro’s] New York office…” and “I trained myself…” and other details about Robert Caro’s habits: Darman, Jonathan“The Marathon Man,”Newsweek, February 16, 2009, which I discovered through the following post on Mason Currey’s Daily Routines blog: http://dailyroutines.typepad.com/daily_routines/2009/02/robert-caro.html

The Charles Darwin information was brought to my attention by the following Daily Routines post: http://dailyroutines.typepad.com/daily_routines/2008/12/charles-darwin.html

This post, in turn, draws on Charles Darwin: A Companion by R.B. Freeman, accessed by Currey on The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online.

“There is a popular notion that artists…”: from the following Slate.com article: http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/features/2013/daily_rituals/john_updike_william_faulkner_chuck_ close_they_didn_t_wait_for_inspiration.html

“[Great creative minds] think like artists…”: from the following New York Times op-ed: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/26/opinion/david-brooks-routine-creativity-and-president-obamas-un-speech. html?_r=1

“It is only ideas gained from walking that have any worth”: This Nietzsche quote was brought to my attention by the excellent book on walking and philosophy: Gros, Frédérick A Philosophy of Walking. Trans. John Howe. New York: Verso Books, 2014..

要有大手笔

Details regarding J.K. Rowling working at the Balmoral Hotel: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/celebritynews/2437835/Harry-Potter-fans-pay-1000-a-night-to-stay-in-hotel-room-where-JK-Rowling-finished-series.html

“As I finished writing Deathly Hallows there came a day…”: from the transcript of Rowling’s 2010 interview with Oprah: http://www.harrypotterspage.com/2010/10/03/transcript-of-oprah-interview-with-j-k-rowling/

For more on Bill Gates’s Think Weeks: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB111196625830690477?mg=reno64-wsj

“it’s really about two and a half months…”: from the following author interview: http://www.identitytheory.com/alan-lightman/

Michael Pollan’s book about building a writing cabin: Pollan, Michael. A Place of My Own: The Education of an Amateur Builder. New York: Random House, 1997.

For more on William Shockley’s scramble to invent the junction transistor: http://www.pbs.org/transistor/background1/events/junctinv.html

“‘ohh! Shiny!’ DNA…”: from a blog post by Shankman: http://shankman.com/where-s-your-home/

“The trip cost $4000…”: from an interview with Shankman: http://www.marketwatch.com/story/entrepreneurs-superpower-for-some-its-adhd-1310052627559

不要独自工作

The July 2013 Business Week article titled“Ending the Tyranny of the Open Office Plan”: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-07-01/ending-the-tyranny-of-the-open-plan-office

(This article has more background on the damage of open office spaces on worker productivity).

The 2800 number cited about Facebook’s open office size was taken from the following March 2014 Daily Mail article: http://www.dailymail. co.uk/sciencetech/article-2584738/Now-THATS-open-plan-office-New-pictures-reveal-Facebooks-hacker-campus-house-10-000-workers-ONE-room.html

“fosters communication and idea flow…”: Konnikova, Maria.“The Open-Office Trap.”The New Yorker. January 7, 2014. http://www.newyorker.com/business/currency/the-open-office-trap

“open plan is pretty spectacular…”: http://www.slate.com/articles/business/psychology_of_management/2014/05/open_plan_offices_ the_new_trend_in_workplace_design.1.html

“we encourage people to stay out in the open…”: http://www.forbes.com/sites/ericsavitz/2012/10/17/jack-dorsey-the-leadership-secrets-of-twitter-and-square/3/

The New Yorker quotes about Building 20, as well as general background and lists of inventions, come from the following 2012 New Yorker article, combined to a lesser degree with the author’s firsthand experience with such lore while at MIT: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/01/30/groupthink

“Traveling the hall’s length…” and the information on Mervin Kelly and his goals for Bell Labs’s Murray Hill campus: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/26/opinion/sunday/innovation-and-the-bell-labs-miracle.html

A nice summary history of the invention of the transistor can be found at PBS’s web site: http://www.pbs.org/transistor/album1/. A more detailed history can be found in Chapter 7 of Walter Isaacson’s 2014 book, The Innovators.

像经商一样执行

“How do I do this?”: from pages xix – xx of Chris McChesney, Covey, Sean., and Huling, Jim. The 4 Disciplines of Execution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.

Clayton Christensen also talks more about his experience with Andy Grove in the following 2010 Harvard Business Review article,“How Will You Measure Your Life,”that he later expanded into a book of the same name: ** http://hbr.org/2010/07/how-will-you-measure-your-life/ar/1**

“the more you try to do…”: from page 10 of McChesney, et al. (2004).

“if you want to win the war for attention…”: David Brooks,“The Art of Focus,”appeared in The New York Times on June 3, 2013. Available online:

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/03/opinion/brooks-the-art-of-focus. html?hp&rref=opinion&_r=2

“when you receive them…”: from page 12 of McChesney, et al. (2004).

“people play differently when they’re keeping score…”: Ibid., 12.

“A rhythm of regular and frequent meetings” and “execution really happens”: Ibid., 13.

图安逸

“I’m not busy…” and “Idleness is not a vacation…”: Krieder, Tim, “The Busy Trap,”appeared online at on June 30, 2013: http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/06/30/the-busy-trap/

Much (though not all) of the research cited to support the value of down time was first brought to my attention through the following detailed Scientific American article on the subject: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/mental-downtime/

“The scientific literature has emphasized…”: from the abstract of Dijksterhuis, Ap, et al.“On Making the Right Choice: The Deliberation-Without-Attention Effect.”Science 311.5763 (2006): 1005-1007.

The Attention Restoration Therapy study described in the text: Berman, Marc G., John Jonides, and Stephen Kaplan.“The Cognitive Benefits of Interacting with Nature.”Psychological Science 19.12 (2008): 1207-1212.

I called this study“frequently cited”based on the over 400 citations identified by Google Scholar as of November, 2014.

An online article where Berman talks about this study and ART more generally (the source of my Berman quotes): http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/marc-berman/attention-restoration-theory-nature_ b_1242261.html

Kaplan, Rachel and Stephen Kaplan. The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,1989.

Ericsson, K. A., R. T. Krampe, and C. Tesch-Römer.“The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance.”Psychological Review 100.3 (1993). 363-406.

“committing to a specific plan for a goal...”: from Masicampo, E. J., and Roy F. Baumeister.“Consider It Done! Plan Making Can Eliminate the Cognitive Effects of Unfulfilled Goals.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101.4 (2011): 667.

准则 2 

My estimate of“hundreds of thousands”daily Talmud studiers comes from this article by Shmuel Rosner: http://latitude.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/08/01/considering-seven-and-a-half-years-of-daily-talmud-study/, as well as my personal correspondence with Adam Marlin.

“so we have scales that allow us to divide…” and “the people we talk with continually said…”: Clifford Nass’s May 10, 2013 interview with Ira Flatow, on NPR’s“Talk of the Nation: Science Friday” show. Audio and transcript are available online: http://www.npr. org/2013/05/10/182861382/the-myth-of-multitasking. In a tragic twist, Nass died unexpectedly just six months after this interview.

不要不断分心,而要不断专注

Powers, William. Hamlet’s Blackberry: Building a Good Life in a Digital Age. New York: Harper, 2010.

“do what Thoreau did…”: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science-july-dec10-hamlets_08-16/

像罗斯福一样工作

The general information about Theodore Roosevelt’s Harvard habits comes from Edmund Morris’fantastic biography: Morris, Edmund. The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: The Modern Library Edition, Random House, 2001. In particular, pages 61 – 65 includes Morris’catalog of Roosevelt’s collegiate activities and an excerpt from a letter from Roosevelt to his mother that outlines his work habits. The specific calculation that Roosevelt dedicates a quarter of his typical day to schoolwork comes from page 64.

“amazing array of interests…”: from page 64 of Morris (2001).

The positive receipt of Roosevelt’s book by the Nuttall Bulletin comes from Morris’s end notes: in particular, Note 37 in the chapter titled,“The Man with the Morning in his Face.”

“one of the most knowledgeable…”: from page 67 of Morris (2001). I ascribed this assessment to Morris, though this is somewhat indirect, as Morris here is actually arguing that Roosevelt’s father, after the publication of The Summer of the Adirondacks, must have felt this about his son.

“the amount of time he spent at his desk…”: from page 64 of Morris (2001).

记住一副牌

Quotes from Daniel Kilov came from personal correspondence. Some background on his story was taken from his online biography http:// mentalathlete.wordpress.com/about/and the following article: http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/global-observer/in-melbourne-memory-athletes-open-up-shop/. More on Kilov’s scores (memory feats) from his two medal-winning championship bouts can be found here: http://www.world-memory-statistics.com/competitor.php?id=1102

Foer, Jonathan. Moonwalking with Einstein: The Art and Science of Remembering Everything. New York: Penguin, 2011.

“We found that one of the biggest differences…”: Carey, Benedict. “Remembering, as an Extreme Sport.”New York Times Well Blog. 19 May 2014.

For more interesting connections between memorization and general thought, see: The Art of Memory, by Frances A. Yates, which first published in 1966. The most accessible version seems to be the handsome 2001 reprint by The University of Chicago Press.

准则 3

“the most connected man in the world…” and “I was burnt out…” and “by the end of that first week” and “the end came to soon” and general information about Baratunde Thurston’s experiment: from the Baratunde Thurston article,“#UnPlug,”that appeared in the July/August 2013 issue of Fast Company. It is also available online at: http://www.fastcompany.com/3012521/unplug/baratunde-thurston-leaves-the-internet.

The reference to Thurston’s Twitter usage refers to the tweets on March 13, 2014 from the Twitter handle @Baratunde.

“entertainment was my initial draw” and “[When] I first joined” and “[I use] Facebook because”: drawn from comments sections of the following two blog posts I wrote in the fall of 2013:

· http://calnewport.com/blog/2013/10/03/why-im-still-not-going-to-join-facebook-four-arguments-that-failed-to-convince-me/

· http://calnewport.com/blog/2013/09/18/why-i-never-joined-facebook/

For more on Forrest Pritchard and Smith Meadows Farms: http://smithmeadows.com/

在你的网络使用习惯中采用关键少数法则

“Who says my fans want to hear from me”: from a Malcolm Gladwell talk which took place at the International Digital Publishing Forum as part of the 2013 BookExpo America Convention, held in May of 2013, in New York City. A summary of the talk, including the quotes excerpted in this chapter, and some video excerpts, can be found at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/29/malcolm-gladwell-attacks-_n_3355041.html

“I don’t tweet…” and “it’s amazing how overly accessible…”: from the following Michael Lewis interview: http://www.thewire.com/entertainment/2010/03/michael-lewis-what-i-read/20129/

“Twitter is crack for media addicts…”: from an online opinion piece written for the New Yorker website: http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/georgepacker/2010/01/stop-the-world.html

“And now, nearly a year later…”: from an article written by Carr for the New York Times in March, 2010: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/03/weekinreview/03carr.html

The Law of the Vital Few is discussed in many sources. Richard Koch’s 1998 book, The 80/20 Principle (New York: Crown, 1998) seems to have helped reintroduce the idea to a business market. Tim Ferriss’ 2007 mega-seller, The Four-Hour Workweek (New York: Crown, 2007), popularized it further, especially among the technology entrepreneur community. The Wikipedia page on The Pareto Principle has a good summary of various places where this general idea applies (I drew many of my examples from here): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle

戒掉社交媒体

“Everything’s more exciting when it’s a party…” and general information on Ryan Nicodemus’s“packing party”: http://www.theminimalists.com/21days/day3/

Average number of Twitter follower statistic comes from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/9601327/Average-Twitter-user-is-an-an-American-woman-with-an-iPhone-and-208-followers.html.

Take this statistic with a grain of salt. A small number of Twitter users have such a large following that the average skews high. Presumably the median would be much lower. But then again, both statistics include users who signed up just to try out the service or read tweets, and who made no serious attempt to ever gain followers or write tweets. If we confined our attention to those who actually tweet and want followers, then the follower numbers would be higher.

不要用网络来消遣

“Take the case of a Londoner who works…” and “great and profound mistake…” and “during those sixteen hours he is free…” and “What? You say that full energy…”: from Bennett, Arnold. How to Live on 24 Hours a Day. Originally published in 1910. This book is out of copyright. My quotes came from the free version of the text maintained in HTML format at Project Guttenberg (which lacks page numbers to cite): http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2274/2274-h/2274-h.htm

准则 4 

“People should enjoy the weather in the summer…” and general notes on Jason Fried’s decision to move 37 Signal (now, Basecamp) to a four-day workweek: https://signalvnoise.com/posts/3186-workplace-experiments-a-month-to-yourself

“Packing 40 hours into four days…”: from a Forbes.com critique of Fried: www.forbes.com/2008/08/18/careers-leadership-work-leadership-cx_tw_0818workweek.html

“The point of the 4-day work week is…” and “Very few people work even 8 hours a day…”: from Fried’s response on his company’s blog: http://signalvnoise.com/posts/1209-forbes-misses-the-point-of-the-4-day-work-week

“I’d take 5 days in a row…”: from Fried’s company’s blog: https://signalvnoise.com/posts/3186-workplace-experiments-a-month-to-yourself

“How can we afford to…”: from an Inc.com article: http://www.inc.com/magazine/201209/jason-fried/why-company-a-month-off.html

The notes on how many hours a day of deliberate practice are possible come from page 370 of the following paper: Ericsson, K. A., R. T. Krampe, and C. Tesch-Römer.“The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance.” Psychological Review 100.3 (1993): 363-406.

一天的每一分钟都要做好计划

The statistics about British TV habits comes from this Guardian article, by Mona Chalabi, published on October 8, 2013: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/reality-check/2013/oct/08/spend-more-time-online-or-watching-tv-internet

The Laura Vanderkam article in the Wall Street Journal: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB124355233998464405

“I think you far understate…”: from Comment #6 of the following blog post: http://calnewport.com/blog/2014/08/08/deep-habits-plan-your-week-in-advance

5 点半之前结束工作

“Scary myths and scary data abound…” and general information about Radhika Nagpal’s fixed schedule productivity habit:

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/2013/07/21/the-awesomest-7-year-postdoc-or-how-i-learned-to-stop-worrying-and-love-the-tenure-track-faculty-life/

Matt Welsh’s quote about typical travel for junior faculty: http://matt-welsh.blogspot.com/2014/08/the-fame-trap.html

The issue of Science where Radhika Nagpal’s work appears on the cover: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/343/6172.toc; Science 343.6172 (14 February 2014): 701-808.

变得不容易联系到

To see my sender filters in action: http://calnewport.com/contact/

“we are slowly eroding our ability to explain…”: from page 13 of Freeman, John. The Tyranny of Email: The Four-Thousand-Year Journey to Your Inbox. New York: Scribner, 2009.

“so, when I emailed Cal to ask if he…”: http://99u.com/articles/7002/stop-the-insanity-how-to-crush-communication-overload

“at some point, the number of people reaching out…” and more details on Clay Herbert and Antonio Centeno’s filters: http://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelsimmons/2014/06/24/open-relationship-building-the-15-minute-habit-that-transforms-your-network/

Notice, this Forbes.com article also talks about my own sender filter habit (I suggested the name“sender filter”to the article’s author, Michael Simmons, who is also a long time friend of mine).

See Antonio’s filters in action: http://www.realmenrealstyle.com/about/

“Develop the habit of letting small bad things happen…”: from Tim Ferriss’blog: http://fourhourworkweek.com/2007/10/25/weapons-of-mass-distractions-and-the-art-of-letting-bad-things-happen/

结论

“I can still see him…”: from the following article for the Harvard Gazette: http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2013/09/dawn-of-a-revolution/

“the one trait that differentiated [Gates from Allen] was focus…”: Isaacson, Walter. The Innovators. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014. The quote from above came from 9:55 into Chapter 6 of Part 2 in the unabridged Audible.com audio version of the book.

The details of the Bill Gates story came mainly from the above-cited Harvard Gazette article, which Walter Isaacson excerpted (with modification) from the above-cited Innovators book. I also pulled some background details, however, from Stephen Manes excellent 1994 business biography. Manes, Stephen. Gates: How Microsoft’s Mogul Reinvented an Industry—and Made Himself the Richest Man in America. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Newport, Cal. So Good They Can’t Ignore You: Why Skill Trumps Passion in the Quest for Work You Love. New York: Business Plus, 2012.

You can find a list of my computer science publications, organized by year, at my academic web site: http://people.cs.georgetown.edu/~cnewport. The publications from my year of living deeply are listed under 2014. Notice that theoretical computer scientists, like myself, publish mainly in competitive conferences, not journals, and that we tend to list authors alphabetically, not in order of contribution.

“I’ll live the focused life…” from page 14 of Gallagher (2009).