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Bentley, G. E., ed. 2005. William Blake: Selected Poems. London: Penguin.



January 1st—Partnerships

Giles, H. A., trans. and ed. 1926. Chuang Tzǔ. 2nd ed., reprint 1980. London: Unwin Paperbacks.

Hale, M. E. 1983. The Biology of Lichens. 3rd ed. London: Edward Arnold.

Hanelt, B., and J. Janovy. 1999. “The life cycle of a horsehair worm, Gordius robustus (Nematomorpha: Gordioidea).” Journal of Parasitology 85: 139–41.

Hanelt, B., L. E. Grother, and J. Janovy. 2001. “Physid snails as sentinels of freshwater nematomorphs.” Journal of Parasitology 87: 1049–53.

Nash, T. H., III, ed. 1996. Lichen Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Purvis, W. 2000. Lichens. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Rivera, M. C., and J. A. Lake. 2004. “The ring of life provides evidence for a genome fusion origin of eukaryotes.” Nature 431: 152–55.

Thomas, F., A. Schmidt-Rhaesa, G. Martin, C. Manu, P. Durand, and F. Renaud. 2002. “Do hairworms (Nematomorpha) manipulate the water seeking behaviour of their terrestrial hosts?” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15: 356–61.



January 17th—Kepler’s Gift

Kepler, J. 1966. The Six-Cornered Snowflake. 1661. Translation and commentary by C. Hardie, B. J. Mason, and L. L. Whyte. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Libbrecht, K. G. 1999. “A Snow Crystal Primer.” Pasadena: California Institute of Technology. www.its.caltech.edu/~atomic/snowcrystals/primer/primer.htm.

Meinel, C. 1988. “Early seventeenth-century atomism: theory, epistemology, and the insufficiency of experiment.” Isis 79: 68–103.



January 21st—The Experiment

Cimprich, D. A., and T. C. Grubb. 1994. “Consequences for Carolina Chickadees of foraging with Tufted Titmice in winter.” Ecology 75: 1615–25.

Cooper, S. J., and D. L. Swanson. 1994. “Seasonal acclimatization of thermoregulation in the Black-capped Chickadee.” Condor 96: 638–46.

Doherty, P. F., J. B. Williams, and T. C. Grubb. 2001. “Field metabolism and water flux of Carolina Chickadees during breeding and nonbreeding seasons: A test of the ‘peak-demand’ and ‘reallocation’ hypotheses.” Condor 103: 370–75.

Gill, F. B. 2007. Ornithology. 3rd ed. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Grubb, T. C., Jr., and V. V. Pravasudov. 1994. “Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor),” The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; doi:10.2173/bna.86.

Honkavaara, J., M. Koivula, E. Korpimäki, H. Siitari, and J. Viitala. 2002. “Ultraviolet vision and foraging in terrestrial vertebrates.” Oikos 98: 505–11.

Karasov, W. H., M. C. Brittingham, and S. A. Temple. 1992. “Daily energy and expenditure by Black-capped Chickadees (Parus atricapillus) in winter.” Auk 109: 393–95.

Marchand, P. J. 1991. Life in the Cold. 2nd ed. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

Mostrom, A. M., R. L. Curry, and B. Lohr. 2002. “Carolina Chickadee (Poecile carolinensis).” The Birds of North America Online. doi:10.2173/bna.636.

Norberg, R. A. 1978. “Energy content of some spiders and insects on branches of spruce (Picea abies) in winter: prey of certain passerine birds.” Oikos 31: 222–29.

Pravosudov, V. V., T. C. Grubb, P. F. Doherty, C. L. Bronson, E. V. Pravosudova, and A. S. Dolby. 1999. “Social dominance and energy reserves in wintering woodland birds.” Condor 101: 880–84.

Saarela, S., B. Klapper, and G. Heldmaier. 1995. “Daily rhythm of oxygen-consumption and thermoregulatory responses in some European winter-acclimatized or summer-acclimatized finches at different ambient-temperatures.” Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systems, and Environmental Physiology 165: 366–76.

Swanson, D. L., and E. T. Liknes. 2006. “A comparative analysis of thermogenic capacity and cold tolerance in small birds.” Journal of Experimental Biology 209: 466–74.

Whittow, G. C., ed. 2000. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology. 5th ed. San Diego: Academic Press.



January 30th—Winter Plants

Fenner, M., and K. Thompson. 2005. The Ecology of Seeds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lambers, H., F. S. Chapin, and T. L. Pons. 1998. Plant Physiological Ecology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Sakai, A., and W. Larcher. 1987. Frost Survival of Plants: Responses and Adaptation to Freezing Stress. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Taiz, L., and E. Zeiger. 2002. Plant Physiology. 3rd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.



February 2nd—Footprints

Allen, J. A. 1877. History of the American Bison. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior.

Barlow, C. 2001. “Anachronistic fruits and the ghosts who haunt them.” Arnoldia 61: 14–21.

Clarke, R. T. J., and T. Bauchop, eds. 1977. Microbial Ecology of the Gut. New York: Academic Press.

Delcourt, H. R., and P. A. Delcourt. 2000. “Eastern deciduous forests.” In North American Terrestrial Vegetation, 2nd ed., edited by M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings, 357–95. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gill, J. L., J. W. Williams, S. T. Jackson, K. B. Lininger, and G. S. Robinson. 2009. “Pleistocene megafaunal collapse, novel plant communities, and enhanced fire regimes in North America.” Science 326: 1100–1103.

Graham, R. W. 2003. “Pleistocene tapir from Hill Top Cave, Trigg County, Kentucky, and a review of Plio-Pleistocene tapirs of North America and their paleoecology.” In Ice Age Cave Faunas of North America, edited by B. W. Schubert, J. I. Mead, and R. W. Graham, 87–118. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Harriot, T. 1588. A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia. Reprint, 1972. New York: Dover Publications.

Hicks, D. J., and B. F. Chabot. 1985. “Deciduous forest.” In Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities, edited by B. F. Chabot and H. A. Mooney, 257–77. New York: Chapman and Hall.

Hobson, P. N., ed. 1988. The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem. Barking, UK: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Lange, I. M. 2002. Ice Age Mammals of North America: A Guide to the Big, the Hairy, and the Bizarre. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press.

Martin, P. S., and R. G. Klein. 1984. Quaternary Extinctions. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

McDonald, H. G. 2003. “Sloth remains from North American caves and associated karst features.” In Ice Age Cave Faunas of North America, edited by B. W. Schubert, J. I. Mead, and R. W. Graham, 1–16. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Salley, A. S., ed. 1911. Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650–1708. New York: Scribner’s Sons.



February 16th—Moss

Bateman, R. M., P. R. Crane, W. A. DiMichele, P. R. Kendrick, N. P. Rowe, T. Speck, and W. E. Stein. 1998. “Early evolution of land plants: phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 263–92.

Conrad, H. S. 1956. How to Know the Mosses and Liverworts. Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown.

Goffinet, B., and A. J. Shaw, eds. 2009. Bryophyte Biology. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Qiu, Y.-L., L. Li, B. Wang, Z. Chen, V. Knoop, M. Groth-Malonek, O. Dombrovska, J. Lee, L. Kent, J. Rest, G. F. Estabrook, T. A. Hendry, D. W. Taylor, C. M. Testa, M. Ambros, B. Crandall-Stotler, R. J. Duff, M. Stech, W. Frey, D. Quandt, and C. C. Davis. 2006. “The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylogenomic evidence.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103: 15511–16.

Qiu Y.-L., L. B. Li, B. Wang, Z. D. Chen, O. Dombrovska, J. J. Lee, L. Kent, R. Q. Li, R. W. Jobson, T. A. Hendry, D. W. Taylor, C. M. Testa, and M. Ambros. 2007. “A nonflowering land plant phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of seven chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes.” International Journal of Plant Sciences 168: 691–708.

Richardson, D. H. S. 1981. The Biology of Mosses. New York: John Wiley and Sons.



February 28th—Salamander

Duellman, W. E., and L. Trueb. 1994. Biology of Amphibians. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Milanovich, J. R., W. E. Peterman, N. P. Nibbelink, and J. C. Maerz. 2010. “Projected loss of a salamander diversity hotspot as a consequence of projected global climate change.” PLoS ONE 5: e12189. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012189.

Petranka, J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Petranka, J. W., M. E. Eldridge, and K. E. Haley. 1993. “Effects of timber harvesting on Southern Appalachian salamanders.” Conservation Biology 7: 363–70.

Ruben, J. A., and A. J. Boucot. 1989. “The origin of the lungless salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae).” American Naturalist 134: 161–69.

Stebbins, R. C., and N. W. Cohen. 1995. A Natural History of Amphibians. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Vieites, D. R., M.-S. Min, and D. B. Wake. 2007. “Rapid diversification and dispersal during periods of global warming by plethodontid salamanders.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 19903–7.



March 13th—Hepatica

Bennett, B. C. 2007. “Doctrine of Signatures: an explanation of medicinal plant discovery or dissemination of knowledge?” Economic Botany 61: 246–55.

Hartman, F. 1929. The Life and Doctrine of Jacob Boehme. New York: Macoy.

McGrew, R. E. 1985. Encyclopedia of Medical History. New York: McGraw-Hill.



March 13th—Snails

Chase, R. 2002. Behavior and Its Neural Control in Gastropod Molluscs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



March 25th—Spring Ephemerals

Choe, J. C., and B. J. Crespi. 1997. The Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Curran, C. H. 1965. The Families and Genera of North American Diptera. Woodhaven, NY: Henry Tripp.

Motten, A. F. 1986. “Pollination ecology of the spring wildflower community of a temperate deciduous forest.” Ecological Monographs 56: 21–42.

Sun, G., Q. Ji, D. L. Dilcher, S. Zheng, K. C. Nixon, and X. Wang. 2002. “Archaefructaceae, a new basal Angiosperm family.” Science 296: 899–904.

Wilson, D. E., and S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.



April 2nd—Chainsaw

Duffy, D. C., and A. J. Meier. 1992. “Do Appalachian herbaceous understories ever recover from clear-cutting?” Conservation Biology 6: 196–201.

Haskell, D. G., J. P. Evans, and N. W. Pelkey. 2006. “Depauperate avifauna in plantations compared to forests and exurban areas.” PLoS ONE 1: e63. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000063.

Meier, A. J., S. P. Bratton, and D. C. Duffy. 1995. “Possible ecological mechanisms for loss of vernal-herb diversity in logged eastern deciduous forests.” Ecological Applications 5: 935–46.

Perez-Garcia, J., B. Lippke, J. Comnick, and C. Manriquez. 2005. “An assessment of carbon pools, storage, and wood products market substitution using life-cycle analysis results.” Wood and Fiber Science 37: 140–48.

Prestemon, J. P., and R. C. Abt. 2002. “Timber products supply and demand.” Chap. 13 in Southern Forest Resource Assessment, edited by D. N. Wear and J. G. Greis. General Technical Report SRS-53, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Asheville, NC: Forest Service, Southern Research Station.

Scharai-Rad, M., and J. Welling. 2002. “Environmental and energy balances of wood products and substitutes.” Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. www.fao.org/docrep/004/y3609e/y3609e00.HTM.

Yarnell, S. 1998. The Southern Appalachians: A History of the Landscape. General Technical Report SRS-18, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Asheville, NC: Forest Service, Southern Research Station.



April 2nd—Flowers

Fenster, C. B., W. S. Armbruster, P. Wilson, M. R. Dudash, and J. D. Thomson. 2004. “Pollination syndromes and floral specialization.” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35: 375–403.

Fosket, D. E. 1994. Plant Growth and Development: A Molecular Approach. San Diego: Academic Press.

Snow, A. A., and T. P. Spira. 1991. “Pollen vigor and the potential for sexual selection in plants.” Nature 352: 796–97.

Walsh, N. E., and D. Charlesworth. 1992. “Evolutionary interpretations of differences in pollen-tube growth-rates.” Quarterly Review of Biology 67: 19–37.



April 8th—Xylem

Ennos, R. 2001. Trees. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Hacke, U. G., and J. S. Sperry. 2001. “Functional and ecological xylem anatomy.” Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 4: 97–115.

Sperry, J. S., J. R. Donnelly, and M. T. Tyree. 1988. “Seasonal occurrence of xylem embolism in sugar maple (Acer saccharum).” American Journal of Botany 75: 1212–18.

Tyree, M. T., and M. H. Zimmermann. 2002. Xylem Structure and the Ascent of Sap. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.



April 14th—Moth

Smedley, S. R., and T. Eisner. 1996. “Sodium: a male moth’s gift to its offspring.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93: 809–13.

Young, M. 1997. The Natural History of Moths. London: T. and A. D. Poyser.



April 16th—Sunrise Birds

Pedrotti, F. L., L. S. Pedrotti, and L. M. Pedrotti. 2007. Introduction to Optics. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Wiley, R. H., and D. G. Richards. 1978. “Physical constraints on acoustic communication in the atmosphere: implications for the evolution of animal vocalizations.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 3: 69–94.



April 22nd—Walking Seeds

Beattie, A., and D. C. Culver. 1981. “The guild of myrmecochores in a herbaceous flora of West Virginia forests.” Ecology 62: 107–15.

Cain, M. L., H. Damman, and A. Muir. 1998. “Seed dispersal and the holocene migration of woodland herbs.” Ecological Monographs 68: 325–47.

Clark, J. S. 1998. “Why trees migrate so fast: confronting theory with dispersal biology and the paleorecord.” American Naturalist 152: 204–24.

Ness, J. H. 2004. “Forest edges and fire ants alter the seed shadow of an ant-dispersed plant.” Oecologia 138: 448–54.

Smith, B. H., P. D. Forman, and A. E. Boyd. 1989. “Spatial patterns of seed dispersal and predation of two myrmecochorous forest herbs.” Ecology 70: 1649–56.

Vellend, M., Myers, J. A., Gardescu, S., and P. L. Marks. 2003. “Dispersal of Trillium seeds by deer: implications for long-distance migration of forest herbs.” Ecology 84: 1067–72.



April 29th—Earthquake

U.S. Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program. “Magnitude 4.6 Alabama.” http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/2003/eq_030429/.



May 7th—Wind

Ennos, A. R. 1997. “Wind as an ecological factor.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12: 108–11.

Vogel, S. 1989. “Drag and reconfiguration of broad leaves in high winds.” Journal of Experimental Botany 40: 941–48.



May 18th—Herbivory

Ananthakrishnan, T. N., and A. Raman. 1993. Chemical Ecology of Phytophagous Insects. New York: International Science Publisher.

Chown, S. L., and S. W. Nicolson. 2004. Insect Physiological Ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hartley, S. E., and C. G. Jones. 2009. “Plant chemistry and herbivory, or why the world is green.” In Plant Ecology, edited by M. J. Crawley. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Nation, J. L. 2008. Insect Physiology and Biochemistry. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Waldbauer, G. 1993. What Good Are Bugs?: Insects in the Web of Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.



May 25th—Ripples

Clements, A. N. 1992. The Biology of Mosquitoes: Development, Nutrition, and Reproduction. London: Chapman and Hall.

Hames, R. S., K. V. Rosenberg, J. D. Lowe, S. E. Barker, and A. A. Dhondt. 2002. “Adverse effects of acid rain on the distribution of Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina in North America.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 99: 11235–40.

Spielman, A., and M. D’Antonio. 2001. Mosquito: A Natural History of Our Most Persistent and Deadly Foe. New York: Hyperion.

Whittow, G. C., ed. 2000. Sturkie’s Avian Physiology. 5th ed. San Diego: Academic Press.



June 2nd—Quest

Klompen, H., and D. Grimaldi. 2001. “First Mesozoic record of a parasitiform mite: a larval Argasid tick in Cretaceous amber (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae).” Annals of the Entomological Society of America 94: 10–15.

Sonenshine, D. E. 1991. Biology of Ticks. Oxford: Oxford University Press.



June 10th—Ferns

Schneider, H., E. Schuettpelz, K. M. Pryer, R. Cranfill, S. Magallon, and R. Lupia. 2004. “Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms.” Nature 428: 553–57.

Smith, A. R., K. M. Pryer, E. Schuettpelz, P. Korall, H. Schneider, and P. G. Wolf. 2006. “A classification for extant ferns.” Taxon 55: 705–31.



June 20th—A Tangle

Haase, M., and A. Karlsson. 2004. “Mate choice in a hermaphrodite: you won’t score with a spermatophore.” Animal Behaviour 67: 287–91.

Locher, R., and B. Baur. 2000. “Mating frequency and resource allocation to male and female function in the simultaneous hermaphrodite land snail Arianta arbustorum.” Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13: 607–14.

Rogers, D. W., and R. Chase. 2002. “Determinants of paternity in the garden snail Helix aspersa.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 52: 289–95.

Webster, J. P., J. I. Hoffman, and M. A. Berdoy. 2003. “Parasite infection, host resistance and mate choice: battle of the genders in a simultaneous hermaphrodite.” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 270: 1481–85.



July 2nd—Fungi

Hurst, L. D. 1996. “Why are there only two sexes?” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 263: 415–22.

Webster, J., and R. W. S. Weber. 2007. Introduction to Fungi. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Whitfield, J. 2004. “Everything you always wanted to know about sexes.” PLoS Biology 2(6): e183. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020183.

Xu, J. 2005. “The inheritance of organelle genes and genomes: patterns and mechanisms.” Genome 48: 951–58.

Yan, Z., and J. Xu. 2003. “Mitochondria are inherited from the MATa parent in crosses of the Basidiomycete fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.” Genetics 163: 1315–25.



July 13th—Fireflies

Eisner, T., M. A. Goetz, D. E. Hill, S. R. Smedley, and J. Meinwald. 1997. “Firefly ‘femmes fatales’ acquire defensive steroids (lucibufagins) from their firefly prey.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94: 9723–28.



July 27th—Sunfleck

Heinrich, B. 1996. The Thermal Warriors: Strategies of Insect Survival. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hull, J. C. 2002. “Photosynthetic induction dynamics to sunflecks of four deciduous forest understory herbs with different phenologies.” International Journal of Plant Sciences 163: 913–24.

Williams, W. E., H. L. Gorton, and S. M. Witiak. 2003. “Chloroplast movements in the field.” Plant Cell and Environment: 2005–14.



August 1st—Eft and Coyote

Brodie, E. D. 1968. “Investigations on the skin toxin of the Red-Spotted Newt, Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens.” American Midland Naturalist 80:276–80.

Hampton, B. 1997. The Great American Wolf. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Parker, G. 1995. Eastern Coyote: The Story of Its Success. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing.



August 8th—Earthstar

Hibbett, D. S., E. M. Pine, E. Langer, G. Langer, and M. J. Donoghue. 1997. “Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94: 12002–6.



August 26th—Katydid

Capinera, J. L., R. D. Scott, and T. J. Walker. 2004. Field Guide to Grasshoppers, Katydids, and Crickets of the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Gerhardt, H. C., and F. Huber. 2002. Acoustic Communication in Insects and Anurans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gwynne, D. T. 2001. Katydids and Bush-Crickets: Reproductive Behavior and Evolution of the Tettigoniidae. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Rannels, S., W. Hershberger, and J. Dillon. 1998. Songs of Crickets and Katydids of the Mid-Atlantic States. CD audio recording. Maugansville, MD: Wil Hershberger.



September 21st—Medicine

Culpeper, N. 1653. Culpeper’s Complete Herbal. Reprint, 1985. Secaucus, NJ: Chartwell Books.

Horn, D., T. Cathcart, T. E. Hemmerly, and D. Duhl, eds. 2005. Wildflowers of Tennessee, the Ohio Valley, and the Southern Appalachians. Auburn, WA: Lone Pine Publishing.

Lewis, W. H., and M. P. F. Elvin-Lewis. 1977. Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Man’s Health. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Mann, R. D. 1985. William Withering and the Foxglove. Lancaster, UK: MTP Press.

Moerman, D. E. 1998. Native American Ethnobotany. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2009. General Advice for the Export of Wild and Wild-Simulated American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Harvested in 2009 and 2010 from States with Approved CITES Export Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior.

Vanisree, M., C.-Y. Lee, S.-F. Lo, S. M. Nalawade, C. Y. Lin, and H.-S. Tsay. 2004. “Studies on the production of some important secondary metabolites from medicinal plants by plant tissue cultures.” Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 45: 1–22.



September 23rd—Caterpillar

Heinrich, B. 2009. Summer World: A Season of Bounty. New York: Ecco.

Heinrich, B., and S. L. Collins. 1983. “Caterpillar leaf damage, and the game of hide-and-seek with birds.” Ecology 64: 592–602.

Real, P. G., R. Iannazzi, A. C. Kamil, and B. Heinrich. 1984. “Discrimination and generalization of leaf damage by blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata).” Animal Learning and Behavior 12: 202–8.

Stamp, N. E., and T. M. Casey, eds. 1993. Caterpillars: Ecological and Evolutionary Constraints on Foraging. London: Chapman and Hall.

Wagner, D. L. 2005. Caterpillars of Eastern North America: A Guide to Identification and Natural History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.



September 23rd—Vulture

Blount, J. D., D. C. Houston, A. P. Mller, and J. Wright. 2003. “Do individual branches of immune defence correlate? A comparative case study of scavenging and non-scavenging birds.” Oikos 102: 340–50.

DeVault, T. L., O. E. Rhodes, Jr., and J. A. Shivik. 2003. “Scavenging by vertebrates: behavioral, ecological, and evolutionary perspectives on an important energy transfer pathway in terrestrial ecosystems.” Oikos 102:225–34.

Kelly, N. E., D. W. Sparks, T. L. DeVault, and O. E. Rhodes, Jr. 2007. “Diet of Black and Turkey Vultures in a forested landscape.” Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119: 267–70.

Kirk, D. A., and M. J. Mossman. 1998. “Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura),” The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. doi:10.2173/bna.339.

Markandya, A., T. Taylor, A. Longo, M. N. Murty, S. Murty,and K. Dhavala. 2008. “Counting the cost of vulture decline—An appraisal of the human health and other benefits of vultures in India.” Ecological Economics 67: 194–204.

Powers, W. The Science of Smell. Iowa State University Extension. www.extension.iastate.edu/Publications/PM1963a.pdf.



September 26th—Migrants

Evans Ogden, L. J., and B. J. Stutchbury. 1994. “Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina),” The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. doi:10.2173/bna.110.

Hughes, J. M. 1999. “Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus),” The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. doi:10.2173/bna.418.

Rimmer, C. C., and K. P. McFarland. 1998. “Tennessee Warbler (Vermivora peregrina),” The Birds of North America Online. doi:10.2173/bna.350.



October 5th—Alarm Waves

Agrawal, A. A. 2000. “Communication between plants: this time it’s real.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 446.

Caro, T. M., L. Lombardo, A. W. Goldizen, and M. Kelly. 1995. “Tail-flagging and other antipredator signals in white-tailed deer: new data and synthesis.” Behavioral Ecology 6: 442–50.

Cotton, S. 2001. “Methyl jasmonate.” www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/jasmine/jasminev.htm.

Farmer, E. E., and C. A. Ryan. 1990. “Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 87: 7713–16.

FitzGibbon, C. D., and J. H. Fanshawe. 1988. “Stotting in Thomson’s gazelles: an honest signal of condition.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 23: 69–74.

Maloof, J. 2006. “Breathe.” Conservation in Practice 7: 5–6.



October 14th—Samara

Green, D. S. 1980. “The terminal velocity and dispersal of spinning samaras.” American Journal of Botany 67: 1218–24.

Horn, H. S., R. Nathan, and S. R. Kaplan. 2001. “Long-distance dispersal of tree seeds by wind.” Ecological Research 16: 877–85.

Lentink, D., W. B. Dickson, J. L. van Leewen, and M. H. Dickinson. 2009. “Leading-edge vortices elevate lift of autorotating plant seeds.” Science 324: 1438–40.

Sipe, T. W., and A. R. Linnerooth. 1995. “Intraspecific variation in samara morphology and flight behavior in Acer saccharinum (Aceraceae).” American Journal of Botany 82: 1412–19.



October 29th—Faces

Darwin, C. 1872. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Reprint, 1965. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lorenz, K. 1971. Studies in Animal and Human Behaviour. Translated by R. Martin. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Randall, J. A. 2001. “Evolution and function of drumming as communication in mammals.” American Zoologist 41: 1143–56.

Todorov, A., C. P. Said, A. D. Engell, and N. N. Oosterhof. 2008. “Understanding evaluation of faces on social dimensions.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12: 455–60.



November 5th—Light

Caine, N. G., D. Osorio, and N. I. Mundy. 2009. “A foraging advantage for dichromatic marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) at low light intensity.” Biology Letters 6: 36–38.

Craig, C. L., R. S. Weber, and G. D. Bernard. 1996. “Evolution of predator-prey systems: Spider foraging plasticity in response to the visual ecology of prey.” American Naturalist 147: 205–29.

Endler, J. A. 2006. “Disruptive and cryptic coloration.” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 273: 2425–26.

———. 1997. “Light, behavior, and conservation of forest dwelling organisms.” In Behavioral Approaches to Conservation in the Wild, edited by J. R. Clemmons and R. Buchholz, 329–55. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

King, R. B., S. Hauff, and J. B. Phillips. 1994. “Physiological color change in the green treefrog: Responses to background brightness and temperature.” Copeia 1994: 422–32.

Merilaita, S., and J. Lind. 2005. “Background-matching and disruptive coloration, and the evolution of cryptic coloration.” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 272: 665–70.

Mollon, J. D., J. K. Bowmaker, and G. H. Jacobs. 1984. “Variations of color-vision in a New World primate can be explained by polymorphism of retinal photopigments.” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 222: 373–99.

Morgan, M. J., A. Adam, and J. D. Mollon. 1992. “Dichromats detect colour-camouflaged objects that are not detected by trichromats.” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 248: 291–95.

Schaefer, H. M., and N. Stobbe. 2006. “Disruptive coloration provides camouflage independent of background matching.” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 273: 2427–32.

Stevens, M., I. C. Cuthill, A. M. M. Windsor, and H. J. Walker. 2006. “Disruptive contrast in animal camouflage.” Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B: Biological Sciences 273: 2433–38.



November 15th—Sharp-shinned Hawk

Bildstein, K. L., and K. Meyer. 2000. “Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus),” The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. doi:10.2173/bna.482.

Hughes, N. M., H. S. Neufeld, and K. O. Burkey. 2005. “Functional role of anthocyanins in high-light winter leaves of the evergreen herb Galax urceolata.” New Phytologist 168: 575–87.

Lin, E. 2005. Production and Processing of Small Seeds for Birds. Agricultural and Food Engineering Technical Report 1. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Marden, J. H. 1987. “Maximum lift production during takeoff in flying animals.” Journal of Experimental Biology 130: 235–38.

Zhang, J., G. Harbottle, C. Wang, and Z. Kong. 1999. “Oldest playable musical instruments found at Jiahu early Neolithic site in China.” Nature 401: 366–68.



November 21st—Twigs

Canadell, J. G., C. Le Quere, M. R. Raupach, C. B. Field, E. T. Buitenhuis, P. Ciais, T. J. Conway, N. P. Gillett, R. A. Houghton, and G. Marland. 2007. “Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104: 18866–70.

Dixon R. K., A. M. Solomon, S. Brown, R. A. Houghton, M. C. Trexier, and J. Wisniewski. 1994. “Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems.” Science 263: 185–90.

Hopkins, W. G. 1999. Introduction to Plant Physiology. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Howard, J. L. 2004. Ailanthus altissima. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/ailalt/all.html.

Innes, R. J. 2009. Paulownia tomentosa. In: Fire Effects Information System. www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/pautom/all.html.

Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller (eds.). 2007. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Woodbury, P. B., J. E. Smith, and L. S. Heath 2007. “Carbon sequestration in the U.S. forest sector from 1990 to 2010.” Forest Ecology and Management 241: 14–27.



December 3rd—Litter

Coleman, D. C., and D. A. Crossley, Jr. 1996. Fundamentals of Soil Ecology. San Diego: Academic Press.

Crawford, J. W., J. A. Harris, K. Ritz, and I. M. Young. 2005. “Towards an evolutionary ecology of life in soil.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 81–87.

Horton, T. R., and T. D. Bruns. 2001. “The molecular revolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology: peeking into the black-box.” Molecular Ecology 10: 1855–71.

Wolfe, D. W. 2001. Tales from the Underground: A Natural History of Subterranean Life. Reading, MA: Perseus Publishing.



December 6th—Underground Bestiary

Budd, G. E., and M. J. Telford. 2009. “The origin and evolution of arthropods.” Nature 457: 812–17.

Hopkin, S. P. 1997. Biology of the Springtails (Insecta: Collembola). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin, and C. W. Cunningham. 2010. “Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences.” Nature 463: 1079–83.

Ruppert, E. E., R. S. Fox, and R. D. Barnes. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach. 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.



December 26th—Treetops

Weiss, R. 2003. “Administration opens Alaska’s Tongass forest to logging.” The Washington Post, December 24, page A16.



December 31st—Watching

Bender, D. J., E. M. Bayne, and R. M. Brigham. 1996. “Lunar condition influences coyote (Canis latrans) howling.” American Midland Naturalist 136: 413–17.

Gese, E. M., and R. L. Ruff. 1998. “Howling by coyotes (Canis latrans): variation among social classes, seasons, and pack sizes.” Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 1037–43.



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