1.See Jean-Pierre Vernant,La volonté de comprendre(La Tour d.Aigues:ditions de l.Aube,1999),pp.37—38.

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2.Ian Buruma,‘Tibet Disenchanted’,New York Review of Books(July 2000),24.

3.The British experience in the Olympic Games of 2012 would make this point with even greater force.


1.J.Katz,Out of the Ghetto:The Social Background of Jewish Emancipation 1770—1870,(Cambridge,MA:Harvard University Press,1973),p.26.


3.SimonDubnow,Die neueste Geschichte des jüischen Volkes,vol.IX(Berlin:Jüdischer Verlag,1929),pp.253ff.

4.SimonDubnow,Die neueste Geschichte des jüischenVolkes,vol.VIII(Berlin:Jüdischer Verlag,1930),p.402;vol.IX,pp.170ff.

5.Stephan Thernstrom(ed.)Harvard Encyclopaedia of American Ethnic Groups,‘Jews’(Cambridge,MA:Belknap Press,Harvard,1980),p.573ii.

6.Dubnow,Die neueste Geschichte des jüischenVolkes,vol.VIII,pp.263—4.

7.Peter Pukzer,‘What about the Jewish non-ntellectuals in Germany?’,in S.Feiner(ed.),Braun Lectures in the History of the Jews in Prussia(Ramat Gan:Bar-lan University Press,2001),no.7,p.10.

8.Oskar Ansull,quoting Theodor Fontane,in Ossietzky,Zweiwochenschrift,24(2004).

9.Karl Emil Franzos,Vom Don zur Donau(Berlin:Rüten&Loening,1970),pp.383—395.

10.Dubnow,Die neueste Geschichte des jüischen Volkes,vol.VIII,p.405.

11.Arthur Schnitzler,Gesammelte Werke,ErzhlendeSchriften Band III,(Berlin,1918),p.82.

12.Shulamit Volkov,‘The dynamics of dissimilation:Ostjuden and German Jews’,in J.Reinharz and W.Schatzberg(eds),The Jewish Response to German Culture from the Enlightenment to the Second World War(Hanover,NH and London:University Press of New England,1985).For a good example(relations between German émigrés and Hollywood),see Michael Kater,‘Die vertriebenen Musen,’in H.Lehmann and O.G.Oexle(eds),Nationalsozialismus in den Kulturwissenschaften Bd 2,(Gettingen,2004),p.505—6.

13.Gerald Stourzh,‘Galten die Juden als Nationalitt Altsterreichs?’,Studia Judaica Austriaca X(Eisenstadt,1984),83—5,esp.84.See also 94,n.29.

14.Yuri Slezkine,The Jewish Century(Princeton:Princeton University Press,New Jersey,2004).

15.A list of 300 eminent Americans drawn up in 1953(Richard B.Morris,Encyclopaedia of American History, New York:Harper)contains twelve Jews(4%)although all but three of these(marked*)belong to the pre-880s immigration.They include four scientists(Boas,Cohn*,Michelson,Rabi*),two jurists(Brandeis,Cardozo),two newspaper editors(Ochs,Pulitzer),one ‘educator’(Flexner),one labour leader(Gompers),one business tycoon(Guggenheim)and one composer(Gershwin*).Would such a list,fifty years later,have omitted all Jews from the list of politicians,state servants,writers and artists?

16.Cf.Dr A.v.Guttry,Galizien,Land und Leute(Munich and Leipzig:G.Müller,1916),p.93:‘die juedische Intelligenz ist voellig im Polentum aufgegangen,ist von der polnischen Gesellschaft aufgenommen worden und gehrt heute zum grossen Teil zu den geachtesten Mitglie dernderselben’.

17.CorradoVivanti(ed.),Einaudi Storia d.Italia,Annali 11,Gli ebrei in Italia,(Turin:Grandi Opere,1997),pp.1190,1625.

18.Daniel Snowman,The Hitler migrés:The Cultural Impact on Britain of Refugees from Nazism(London:Pimlico,2002),p.326.

19.Gerd Hohorst,Jürgen Kocka and Gerhard A.Ritter,Sozialgeschichtliches Arbitsbuch:Materialien zur Statistik des Kaiserreichs 1870—1914(Munich:Beck,1975),p. 164;H.U.Wehler,Deutsche Sozialgeschichte Bd 3 1849—1914(Munich:Beck,1995),p.419.

20.Wehler,Deutsche Sozialgeschichte Bd 3 1849—1914(Munich:Beck,1995),p.615.

21.Before then there were only seven in physics and chemistry,compared with something like twenty-ive to thirty in the next 30 years.

22.Educational discrimination(the numerous clauses)was abandoned in practice after the 1905 revolution,but even before then 13.4% of the students at Kiev University and 14.5% of those at Odessa University were Jewish.G.L.Shetilina in Istoriya SSSR(1979),vol.5,p.114.


1.John C.Bartholomew,The Edinburgh World Atlas(7th edn,Edinburgh:J.Bartholomew,1970).

2.Ivan T.Berend and Gyrgi Ránki,Economic Development in East Central Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries(New York:Columbia University Press,1974).

3.Austria,Hungary,the Czech Republic,Slovakia,Poland,Ukraine,Romania,Italy,Slovenia,Croatia,Bosnia,Serbia.

4.Since Francis Joseph ruled as emperor in the Austrian but as king in the Hungarian part of his realm.

5.Karl Emil Franzos,Aus Halb-sien:Culturbilder aus Galizien,der Bukowina,Sürussland und Rumnien,vol.1(Leipzig,1876).

6.Gregor von Rezzori,Maghrebinische Geschichten(Hamburg:Rowohlt,1953)Ein Hermelin in Tschernopol:Ein maghrebinischer Roman(Hamburg:Rowohlt,1958).

7.See Gerald Stourzh,‘Galten die Judenals Nationalitt Altsterreichs?’,Studia Judaica Austriaca vol.Ⅹ(Eisenstadt,1984),74—9.

8.Carl.E.Schorske,Fin-e-iècle Vienna:Politics and Culture(London:Vintage Press,1980),p.31.


1.In this chapter,the word ‘culture’is used in the sense usually given to it in 19th century bourgeois discourse:namely,the body of achievements in the various creative arts assumed to have moral and aesthetic value(as distinct from mere ‘entertainment’)their proper appreciation,and the body of knowledge necessary for their proper appreciation.

2.Jihang Park,‘Women of their time:The growing recognition of the second sex in Victorian and Edwardian England’,Journal of Social History,21(September,1987),49—67.


4.Edmeé Charnier,L.volution intellectuelle feminine(Paris:A.Mechelinck,1937).

5.Anne Sayre,Rosalind Franklin and DNA(New York:Norton,1975).

6.Martha Vicinus,Independent Women:Work and Community for Single Women,1850—1920(London:University of Chicago Press,1986).

7.David Marsh,The Changing Social Structure of England and Wales,1871—1961(London:Routledge&Kegan Paul,London,1965).

8.Jihang Park,‘The British suffrage archivists of 1913:an analysis’,Past and Present,120(August 1988),147—163.

9.The best introductions to this much-ublicized secret society can be found in Paul Levy,Moore:G.E.Moore and the Cambridge Apostles(Toronto:Oxford University Press,1981);and in Robert Skidelsky,John Maynard Keynes:Hopes betrayed 1883—1920,vol.Ⅰ(London:Macmillan,1983).

10.Theodore Zeldin,France 1848—1975,vol.I(Oxford:Oxford University Press,1977).

11.The Englishwoman.s Handbook,1905.

12.Skidelsky,John Maynard Keynes.

13.Norman MacKenzie and Jeanne MacKenzie(eds),The Diaries of Beatrice Webb(London:Virago,1983).

14.The period 1800—1914 is probably the only one in English literature since 1800 when the list of major novelists— say,Thomas Hardy,Joseph Conrad,H.G.Wells,Arnold Bennett,Rudyard Kipling,E.M.Forster and George Gissing—contains no obvious woman.


1.Rosemary Hill,“‘Gorgeous,and a wee bit vulgar”:from Gesamtkunstwerk to“lifestyle”:the consumable daring of Art Nouveau’,Times Literary Supplement(May 5 2000),18.

2.Eric Hobsbawm,Workers:Worlds of Labour(New York:Pantheon,1985),p.136.

3.Stephen Escritt,Art Nouveau(London:Phaidon,2000),p.77.

4.Schorske,Fin-e-iècle Vienna:Politics and Culture,p.304.

5.Debora L.Silverman,Art Nouveau in Fin-e-iècle France(Berkeley:University of California Press,1989),pp.138—9.

6.Eric Hobsbawm,Age of Empire(London:Weidenfeld& Nicolson,1987),p.165.

7.Escritt,Art Nouveau,p.70.


9.Silverman,Art Nouveau in Fin-e-iècle France,p.189.

10.Hobsbawm,Age of Empires,p.169.

11.Escritt,Art Nouveau,p.329.

12.‘La Barcelona del 1900’,L.Avenc(Oct 1978),p.22.



1.Richard Overy,The Morbid Age:Britain Between the Wars (London:Allen Lane,2009),p.376.



1.Andrew Brown,J.D.Bernal:The Sage of Science(Oxford:Oxford University Press,2006).

2.Fred Steward,‘Political Formation’,in Brenda Swann and Francis Aprahamian(eds),J.D.Bernal:A Life in Science and Politics(London:Verso,1999).

3.Cf.the present writer.s preface to Swann and Aprahamian(eds),J.D.Berna,esp.xv—xviii.


5.J.D.Bernal,The Social Function of Science(Cambridge,MA:MIT Press,1967).

6.J.D.Bernal,Science in History(Cambridge,MA:MIT,1971).

7.Georges Friedmann,La Crise du Progrès:esquisse d.histoire des idées,1895—1935(Paris:Gallimard,1936).

8.Yoram Gorlicki and Oleg Khlebniuk,Cold Peace:Stalin and the Soviet Ruling Circle,1945—53(New York:Oxford University Press,2004),p.39.

9.C.P.Snow,‘J.D.Bernal:A Personal Portrait’,in M.Goldsmith and A.Mackay,(eds),The Science of Science(London:Penguin,1964).


1.Only one other brief biography exists,published under the auspices of UNESCO shortly after his death:Maurice Goldsmith,Joseph Needham,Twentieth Century Renaissance Man(Paris:UNESCO,1995).

2.Joseph Needham,Chemical Embryology(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1931).

3.Joseph Needham(ed.),The Chemistry of Life:Lectures on the History of Biochemistry(Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1961).

4.T.E.B.Howarth,Cambridge Between Two Wars(London:Collins,1978),p.190.


6.Peter J.Bowles,Reconciling Science and Religion:The Debate in Early Twentieth-entury Britain(Chicago:University of Chicago Press,2001),p.39.

7.Obituary in Current Science,69,No.6(25 September 1995).

8.Joseph Needham,Within the Four Seas:The Dialogue of East and West(London;Routledge,2005),p.189—91.

9.F.R.Leavis( ed.),Scrutiny( May 1932),36—39.

10.Science and Society,vol.23(1959),58—65,from which the above quotes are taken.



1.Robert W.Hefner,Civic Islam:Muslims and Democratization in Indonesia(Princeton:Princeton University Press,2000),p.17.

2.CIA World Factbook,https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-orld-actbook/index.html.

3.J.D.Long-arcia,‘Admission Deferred:Modern Barriers to Vocation’,The US Catholic,76:9(16 August 2011),pp.30—35,at htttp://www.uscatholic.org/church/2011/07/admission-eferred-odern-arriers-ocations.

4.CIA,World Fact Book,‘Field Listing:Religions’(‘Orthodox churches are highly nationalist and ethnic’).

5.The Jewish Week,New York(2 November 2001);Judaism 101,an online encyclopaedia:‘Movements of Judaism’at http://www.jewfaq.org/movement.htm.

6.SamiZubaida,‘The“ArabSpring”inhistorical perspective’(21 October 2011),at http://www.opendemocracy.net/sami-ubaida/arab-pring-n-istorical-erspective.

7.YouGov/Daybreakpoll,Religion+ school + churches,September 2010,at http://d25d2506sfb94s.cloudfront.net/today_uk_import/YG-rchives-ife-ouGov-aybreakReligion-30910.pdf.

8.Office for National Statistics,Social Trends,No.40(2010 edn),table 2.12,p.20.

9.David E Eagle,‘Changing Patterns of Attendance at religious services in Canada 1986—2008’,Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,50:1(March 2011),187—200.

10.P.Brenner,‘Exceptional Behavior or Exceptional Identity?:overreporting of church attendance in the U.S.’,Public Opinion Quarterly,75:1(February 2011),19—41;C.Kirk Hadawayand P.L.Marler,‘How many Americans attend worship each week?’,Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion,44:3,(August 2005),307—322.

11.AndreaAlthoff,‘Religious identities of Latin American immigrants in Chicago:preliminary findings from field research’(University of Chicago,Divinity School,Religion Cultural Web Forum,June2006),at http://divinity.uchicago.edu/martycenter/publications/webforum/062006/.

12.PewForum,‘Spirit and Power:a 10-ountry survey of Pentecostals’,at http://www.pewforum.org/Christian/Evangelical-rotestant-hurches/Spirit-nd-ower.aspx.

13.James R.Green,Grass-oots Socialism.RadicalMovements in the Southwest 1895—1943(Baton Rouge and London:Louisiana State University Press,1978),pp.170—173.

14.Gérard Bernier,Robert Boilyand Danniel Salée,Le Quebec en chiffres de 1850 à nos jours,(Montreal:ACFAS,1986),p.228.

15.Althoff,‘Religious indentities’.

16.Richard Hugh Burgess,The civil war revival and its Pentecostal progeny:a religious movement among the Igbo people of eastern Nigeria,Ph.D.thesis,University of Birmingham(2004).

17.Billie Jean Isbell,Finding Cholita(Champaign:University of Illinois Press,2009).

18.These were discussed in Eric Hobsbawm,The Age of Extremes:A History of the World,1914—91(London:Pantheon Books,London,1995),chapters 9—11.


1.Cited in John Willett,The New Sobriety:Art and Politics in the Weimar Period 1917—1933(London:Thames and Hudson,1978),p.76.

2.Cited in Linda Nochlin(ed.),Realism and Tradition in Art,1848—1900:Sources and Documents(Englewood Cliffs:Prentice-all,1996),p.53.

3.‘French Artists Spur on American Art’,New York Tribune,24 October 1915.

4.Cited in L.Brion-uerry(ed.),L’Année1913:Les forms esthétique de l’oeuvre d’art àla vielle de la premiére guerre mondiale(Paris:ditionsKlinksieck,1971),p.89 n.34.

5.Catalogue of Exhibition Berlin-oskau 1900—1950,pp.118(fig.1),120-1.

6.Brion-uerry(ed.),L.Année1913,p.86 n.27.

7.The Economist,Pocket Britain in Figure:1997 Edition(London:Profile Books,1996),pp.194,195.

8.Theodore Zeldin,France 1848—1945:Intellect,Taste and Anxiety (Oxford:Clarendon,1977),p.446.

9.Pierre Nora(ed.),Les lieux de memoire Ⅱ:La Nation(Paris:Gallimard,1986),vol.Ⅲ,p.256.

10.Gisèle Freund,Photographie und burgerliche Gesellschaft(Munich:Verlagrogner& Bernhard,1968),p.92.

11.Cited in Brion-uerry(ed.),L’Année 1913.

12.Catalogue Paris-erlin,1900—1933(Pompidou Centre,1978),pp.170—1.

13.Cited in Charles Harrison and paul Wood(eds),Art in Theory 1900—1990:An Anthology of Changing Ideas (Oxford:Blackwell,1992),p.576.

14.Cited in Suzy Menkes,‘Man Ray,Designer behind the Camera’,International Herald Tribune,5 May 1998.

15.Zeldin,France 1848—1945,pp.480,481.

16.P.Bourdieu,La Distinction:critiquesociale du jugement(Paris:ditions de Minuit,1979),p.615.Respondents were asked to choose among the following artists:Raphael,Bufffet,Utrillo,Vlaminck,Watteau,Remoir,Van Gogh,Dalí,Braque,Goya,Brueghel,Kandinsky.

17.Robert Hughes,American Visions:The Epic History of Art in America(London:Harvill,1997),pp.487—8.

18.Brion-uerry(ed.),L.Année 1913,p.297 n.29.

19.Harrison and Wood(eds),Art in theory 1900—1990,p.804.

20.Alan Bullock and Oliver Stallybrass(eds),The Fontanna Dictionary of Modern Thought (London:Fontana,1977),entry:‘Cubism’.

21.Nikolaus Pevsner,Pioneers of modern Design:From Willaim Morris to Walter Gropious(1936;London:Penguin,1991,revised edn).

22.Brion-uerry(ed.),L.Année1913,p.86 n.27.

23.Paul Klee,Uber die modern Kunst(Bern:VerlagBenteli,1945),p.53.


1.Umberto Eco,Apocalittici e integrati:comunicazioni di massa e teorie della cultura di massa(Milan:Bompiani,1964).

2.Stuart Hall and Paddy Whannel,The Popular Arts(London:Hutchinson,1964).

3.Richard Hoggart,The Uses of Literacy:Aspects of Working Class Life(London:Chatto and Windus,1957),pp.86—87.

4.Edgar Morin,Les Stars(Paris:ditions de Minuit,1957).

5.Eco,Apocalittici e integrati,pp.180—181.


1.Eduardo Franco Isaza,Los guerrilleros del llano(Bogotá:Mundial,1959).

2.Gustave Aimard,Les Trappeurs de l.Arkansas(Paris:Amyot,1858).

3.Lonn Taylor and Ingrid Maar(eds),The American Cowboy,vol.39,issue 2 of American Studies in Folklife(Library of Congress:American Folklife Centre,1983),p.88.

4.William S.Hart,1916,quoted in George Fenin and William Everson,The Western:From Silents to the Seventies(Harmondsworth:Penguin,1977).

5.Robert A.Dykstra,The Cattle Towns(New York:Alfred A.Knopf,1968),p.144.

6.Robert Taft,Artists and Illustrators of the Old West 1850-1900(New York:Scribners,1953),pp.194—195,quoting ‘Ranching and Ranchers of the Far West’,Lippincotts Magazine,29(1882),435.

7.Zane Grey,Riders of the Purple Sage(New York:Harpers & Brothers,1912).

8.Guy de Maupassant,‘Boule de Suif’,first published in Les Soirées de Médan(1880).

9.The full text of the passage is ‘riding ahead alone on his horse,the cowboy who rides all alone into the town,the village,with his horse and nothing else.Maybe even without a pistol,since he doesn.t shoot.He acts,that.s all…This amazing,romantic character suits me precisely because to be alone has always been part of my style or,if you like,my technique.’See special section:‘Chagrined Cowboy’ in Time Magazine(8 October 1979).

10.This advertisement appeared in various periodicals including New York Magazine and Texas Monthly.

11.Fenin and Everson,The Western,p.117.